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A History of Plant Pathology in Virginia: The Hooper Era (9/1/1980-6/30/1984)

Gerald R. Hooper was appointed to succeed Chester L. Foy as Head of the Department of Plant Pathology and Physiology on August 18, 1980. The second comprehensive review of the Department had been held in the week of February 26 to March 2. 1979. It would become Hooper's lot to carry out the recommendations of the review panel.

Hooper was born on August 28, 1937 in Belvedere, California. He adopted the abbreviated name "Gary" by which he is known. He earned a B. S. degree, majoring in botany and minoring in chemistry at Brigham Young University, 1953. He earned the Ph. D. degree at the University of California, Riverside, 1968, majoring in plant pathology. He gained considerable experience in teaching and research as Assistant Professor at Riverside, 1968-1971, and California Polytechnic Institute, San Luis Obispo, 1971-1972. He became Associate Professor and Professor (1977) at Michigan State University, 1972-1980, where he was Director of the Center for Electron Optics. He taught electron microscopy and conducted research on virus diseases of woody fruit crops and the ultrastructure of various fungi.

Hooper began his tenure at V.P.I. & S.U. with a faculty of 10 professors, 6 associate professors, 8 assistant professors, 5 adjunct professors, 1 visiting professor, and 3 research associates:

Professors:

Samuel W. Bingham - Plant Physiologist, weed control on highways, golf courses, turf.

William E. Chappell - Plant Physiologist, weed and brush control, rights-of-way.

Houston B. Couch - Plant Pathologist, turfgrass pathology.

Charles R. Drake - Plant Pathologist, fruit crop pathology, coordinator of the plant protection program.

Chester L. Foy - Plant Physiologist, immediate past Department Head, weed control, herbicide additives.

Gary J. Griffin - Plant Pathologist, soil microbiology, peanut and forest tree pathology, chestnut blight.

Curtis W. Roane - Plant Pathologist, diseases of cereals and soybean, genetics of host-parasite interactions.

John M. Skelly - Plant Pathologist, forest pathology, air pollution studies, extension.

Roland J. Stipes - Plant Pathologist, diseases of landscape trees.

Wirt H. Wills - Plant Pathologist, ornamental plant diseases, fungal pathogens.

Associate Professors:

James S. Coartney - Weed Scientist, nursery crops, Christmas trees, extension.

Maynard G. Hale - Plant Pathologist, gnotobiology, plant stress.

Robert C. Lambe - Plant Pathologist, ornamental and nursery crop diseases, extension.

Laurence D. Moore - Plant Pathologist, physiology of diseases, tobacco and turfgrass pathology.

David M. Orcutt - Plant Physiologist, plant stress, instruction.

Sue A. Tolin - Plant Pathologist, virology, virus diseases of legumes, tobacco, corn.

Assistant Professors:

Samuel A. Alexander - Plant Pathologist, forest tree and Christmas tree diseases.

Kriton K. Hatzios - Plant Physiologist, herbicidal action.

Dean A. Komm - Plant Pathologist (Blackstone), tobacco pathology, extension.

George H. Lacy - Plant Pathologist, phytobacteriology, vegetable crop diseases.

James R. Martin - Plant Physiologist (Warsaw), weed and disease control, IPM, extension.

Patrick M. Phipps - Plant Pathologist (Holland), peanut pathology.

Orvin E. Rud - Plant Physiologist (Holland), weed control, peanut, soybean, corn.

Keith W. Yoder - Plant Pathologist (Winchester), tree fruit pathology.

Adjunct Professors:

L. S. Dochinger - USDA Forest Service.

John R. Elkins - Professor of Chemistry, Concord College, Athens, West Virginia.

Kenneth H. Garren - USDA, Holland, Virginia, peanut pathology.

D. Morris Porter - USDA, Holland, Virginia, peanut pathology.

Martha K. Roane - Plant Pathologist, fungal taxonomy, Rhododendron diseases, chestnut blight.

Research Associates:

J. R. Diaz-Ruiz - USDA, Beltsville, virology.

Lance W. Kress - Graduate student, Blacksburg, air pollution, forest pathology.

M. L. Link - Graduate student, vegetation management on rights-of-way, herbicide application.

There were several personnel changes during the Hooper Era.

Faculty Hired (all as Assistant Professors except Grayson):

David E. Babineau - 1981, Plant Pathologist, IPM in cereals and soybean, Warsaw.

Anton B. A. M. Baudoin - 1981, Plant Pathologist, instruction.

Boris I. Chevone - 1980, Plant Physiologist, air pollution.

Jeffrey F. Derr - 1984, Weed Scientist, weed control in horticultural crops, primarily extension.

Alma P. Elliott - 1980, Plant Pathologist, nematology.

Edward S. Hagood, Jr. - 1981, Weed Scientist, herbicide application, weed identification, primarily extension.

Randolph L. Grayson - 1984, Professor, Plant Pathologist, Director of the Electron Microscope Laboratory.

Erik L. Stromberg - 1981, Plant Pathologist, diseases of agronomic crops.

Michael J. Weaver - 1980, Plant Pathologist, Coordinator of the Chemical Drug and Pesticide Unit. Grape disease specialist, extension.

John W. Wilcut - 1984, Weed Scientist, Holland, cereals, soybean, and peanut, primarily extension.

William E. Winner - 1982, Plant Physiologist, Director of the Air Pollution Laboratory.

Hired as Research Associate:

Robert L. Wick __ Manager of the Plant Disease/Nematode Clinic.

Faculty Separating:

William E. Chappell - 1983, Professor, Weed Scientist, retirement.

James S. Coartney - 1982, Associate Professor, Weed Scientist, transferred to the Department of Horticulture.

John M. Skelly - 1983, Professor, Plant Pathologist. Resigned to become Head of Department of Plant Pathology, Pennsylvania State University.

Robert L. Wick __ 1984, Research Associate. Resigned to become Assistant Professor, University of Massachusetts.

Thus, during the Hooper Era there was a net gain of 8 faculty positions.

As previously mentioned, it would fall Hooper's lot to implement the recommendations put forth by the panel of the 1979 Comprehensive Review. Some suggestions included:

  1. Renaming the Department to reflect more fully its mission of plant protection.
  2. As a further reflection of its mission, the Department should have "An undergraduate degree in plant protection......The undergraduate program need not be the sole responsibility of this Department, but the Department's contribution should be a clearly identified component. Nothing strengthens a department so much as having undergraduate students of its own."
  3. A coordinated plant physiology program involving an inter-departmental faculty was recommended.
  4. In order to strengthen its identity and enhance its funding, the weed science group should align itself more closely with commodity groups.
  5. There should be a strengthening of research in plant stress as it would relate well to the overall mission of plant protection.
  6. The panel criticized plant pathology research as being "A collection of many small projects which were difficult to relate...Serious consideration should be given to sacrificing breadth.for great depth...we urge that research goals be established by the plant pathology faculty, and individual researchers." As a result, the "Department should be able to present a logical, dependable approach to the College administration for resources."
  7. The author's own reaction is that the criticism of the plant pathology program was unfounded, that the non-specific recommendation was in a sense the panel grasping for straws. The Department was well aware of its financial plight and the administration was being forced into a situation whereby it had to do more with less. The Review Panel did not offer any specifics. The statement therefore seemed to typify those of bureaucrats. Unlike their recommendations for the instruction, physiology, and weed programs, the panel did not have much to offer the pathology programs. Perhaps without saying so, or being reluctant to say so, the panel endorsed the pathology program.

So how did Hooper respond to the recommendations of the Review Panel?

  1. In 1983, the Department became the Department of Plant Pathology, Physiology and Weed Science. This appeased the weed people whose field had grown rapidly and the addition of "Weed Science" gave them a feeling of professional credibility. It also favored the hiring of weed scientists who now knew they would not be an obscure addendum to an established department.
  2. Apparently, the Review Panel overlooked the fact that R. W. Tillman had been hired to establish an IPM program at both the undergraduate and graduate level. Anton Baudoin was hired in the Hooper Era to continue these efforts. Therefore, Hooper responded at least in part to the second recommendation.
  3. Beginning in 1980, a group composed of faculty from the Departments of Plant Pathology and Physiology (not yet renamed), Biochemistry, and Biology developed an Inter-departmental Plant Physiology Program. Although it was faculty initiated about the time Hooper arrived, he fully supported this initiative. It continues to the present.
  4. The weed science group was strengthened by the prompt hiring of replacement faculty for Chappell, Kates, and Rud in the persons of Derr, Hagood and Wilcut.
  5. There was a strengthening of research in plant stress which Hooper supported. This area was a great supplement to plant pathology and a course "Physiology of Plant Stress" initiated by M. G. Hale in the Foy Era was a welcome addition to the education of plant pathology graduate students. Hooper supported it passively.
  6. In response to establishing research goals, nothing revolutionary happened during the Hooper Era as had happened under Couch. R. L. Grayson was added to the Departmental faculty in 1984 and appointed Director of the Electron Microscope Laboratory. W. E. Winner was appointed Director of the Air Pollution Laboratory but all other appointments were into vacant positions (Babineau for Martin, Baudoin For Tillman, Chevone for Kress, Derr for Chappell, Elliott for Fox, Hagood for Kates, Stromberg for Pristou, Weaver was a sidewise move, and Wilcut for Rud.) In general, the goals remained as they had been at the inception of the Hooper Era. Changes in personnel had little impact on the Departmental mission.

From here forward, emphasis will be on accomplishments and changes in plant pathology as reported in the various sections.

Instruction and Related Topics

The Hooper Era began with an impressive list of plant pathology courses offered by the Department. The following list is compiled from the 1980 University Catalogue.

The instructors where known are included:

2960 - Field Study - hrs. & cr. arr.

3010 - Plant Pathology - 3 (3), II or V. (Couch).

3020 - Plant Pathology Laboratory - 3 (1), II or V. (Wills).

3030 - Forest Pathology Laboratory - 3 (1), II. (Skelly/Alexander).

4010 - Air Pollution Damage to Plants - 3 (3), I. (Skelly/Moore).

4040 - Diseases of Crop Plants - 7 (3), II. (Drake).

4050 - Phytopathogens - 4 (4), I. (Griffin, Wills, Tolin).

4060 - Principles of Pesticide Application - 5 (3), III or V. (Bingham).

4960 - Field Study - hrs. & cr. arr.

4970 - Independent Study - hrs. & cr. arr.

4980 - Special Study - hr. & cr. arr.

4990 - Undergraduate Research and Thesis - hrs. & cr. arr.

5020 - Principles of Plant Disease Control - 3 (3), III. (Stipes).

5030 - Plant Parasitic Nematodes - 7 (3), II, alt. even yrs.

5040 - Plant Virology - 6 (4), I, alt. odd yrs. (Tolin).

5090 - Genetics of Host - Parasite Interactions - 3 (3), II, alt. even years. (Roane).

5111 - Seminar - 1 (1), III.

5120 - Concepts and Practices of Pesticide Application - 5 (3), III. (Bingham).

5130 - Plant Pathogenic Agents - 4 (4), I. (Griffin, Wills, Tolin).

5150 - Diseases of Field Crops - 6 (4), I. (Roane).

5170 - Epidemiology of Plant Diseases - 6 (4), III.

5180 - Diseases of Landscape Trees, Ornamentals and Turfgrasses - 4 (3), III; alt. even yrs. (Stipes, Wills, Couch).

5190 - Phytopathogenic Fungi - 6 (4), III. (Wills).

5221 - Clinical Plant Pathology I - 6 (2), II. (Griffin).

5222 - Clinical Plant Pathology II - 6 (2), III. (Miller).

5311 - Pest Management Systems I - 5 (3), II.

5312 - Pest Management Systems II - 9 (3), III.

5900 - Project and Report 1-3 (1-3) arr.

5970 - Independent Study - hrs. & cr. arr.

5980 - Special Study - hrs. & cr. arr.

5990 - Research and Thesis - hrs. & cr. arr.

6020 - Principles of Plant Disease Development - 3 (3), I; alt. odd year. (Couch).

6040 - Physiology of Pathogenesis - 6 (4), III; alt even yrs. (Moore).

7990 - Research and Dissertation - hrs. & cr. arr.

Added to the courses above were those in plant physiology and weed science to make an impressive showing for the Department in the catalogue. It may be noted that for some courses no instructor is named. This is due to the departures of J. A. Fox who taught 5030 and co-taught 4050 and 5130, and R. W. Tillman who was to teach 3020, 5170, 5311, and 5312. Fox and Tillman would be replaced by A. P. Elliott and Anton Baudoin, respectively.

Several courses in plant physiology were valuable to plant pathology majors. Required for M. S. (thesis) and Ph. D. programs was:

5100 - Water Relations and Mineral Nutrition - 6 (4), I. (Hale).

Courses frequently elected were:

5060 - Plant Metabolism - 6 (4), II. (Moore).

5110 - Physiology of Plant Stress - 3 (3), II. (Hale).

The Department offered two options for M. S. degrees. One was a non-thesis option in Plant Protection. For comparison, the two programs of study are shown. From 1973-1980, an average of 5.5 degrees per year were granted in the non-thesis program, but for the Hooper Era only 1.5 were granted.

Minimum Requirements for M. S. (Non-Thesis) Degree in PlPP (Plant Protection)

General Microbiology 1 term
Plant Pathology 1 term, with laboratory PlPP 4020 Plant Growth Regulation 4
PlPP 4030 Principles of Vegetation Control 4
PlPP 4040 Diseases of Crop Plants 3
PlPP 4210 Insect-Pest Management 4
PlPP 5020 Principles of Plant Disease Control 3
PlPP 5111 Seminar 1
PlPP 5120 Concepts and Practices of Pesticide Application 3
PlPP 5130 Plant Pathogenic Agents 4
PlPP 5221 Clinical Plant Pathology I2
PlPP 5222 Clinical Plant Pathology II2
PlPP 5311-12 Pest Management Systems 6
PlPP 5900 Project and Report 6 maximum

Minimum Requirement for the M. S. (Thesis) Degree in Plant Pathology

Biometry (or Statistics) 2 terms
General Microbiology 1 term, with laboratory
Introductory Mycology 1 term, with laboratory
Plant Anatomy or Morphology 1 term
Plant Pathology 1 term, with laboratory
PlPP 5100 Plant Water Relations and Mineral Nutrition 4
PlPP 5111 Seminar 1
PlPP 5990 Research and Thesis 9-15
Select 6 or more additional credits from plant anatomy,
morphology, taxonomy, cytology or ecology.
6
Select 12 additional credit in plant pathology. 12

The decline of students in the non-thesis Plant Protection program caused the faculty to re-evaluate the program. During the Moore Era 1984-1997, the program was virtually extinct.

In the 1984 Comprehensive Review, reasons were given for declining enrollment in Plant Protection. First, there has been a decline in enrollment nationwide in Agricultural Colleges; second, there has been a decline in job opportunities; third, the number of course credits required was greater than for a thesis M. S.; fourth, (and this is the writer's opinion) there was not a clear-cut distinction between the project and report required in Plant Protection and a thesis. Some advisers required as much effort for a project and report as they would for a thesis; and fifth, Plant Protection students had to finance their own course of study.

It was also noted that during the Hooper Era several course changes and less than the required minimum number of students in courses caused cancellations of courses that were not student-acceptable and curriculum revisions. These problems are self destructive. Students seek more favorable environments from which to launch a career.

An integrated plant management (IPM) curriculum had been established in 1980 as an option for Horticulture and Agronomy undergraduates, with PPWS and Entomology contributing many of the courses, and two advisors. In effect it was a committee- operated curriculum administered from the Dean's office. The curriculum was precipitated by four factors:

  1. A national movement to educate undergraduate students in the philosophy and techniques of IPM.
  2. The perceived demand in the job market for people with an IPM background.
  3. Political pressures within the University (meaning what?)
  4. A need to resolve scheduling problems associated with the undergraduate plant protection options in Agronomy and Horticulture.

By 1984, 10 IPM majors had graduated; 15 were enrolled. This was an unrealistic number to sustain a curriculum. Reasons given in the 1984 Comprehensive Review for failure of enrollment to increase were:

  1. A decline of enrollment in most agricultural colleges an at V.P.I. & S.U. in particular.
  2. Failure of an increased number of job opportunities in IPM to materialize.
  3. Lack of familiarity with IPM by the general public.
  4. Failure of students to be exposed to IPM courses until the 3rd year.

Thus, by the end of the Hooper Era, the Department, with the IPM curriculum foundering, had not yet established itself as a Department for undergraduate majors. Lack of interest and declining enrollment will probably doom the curriculum. However, there are very few successful undergraduate plant pathology programs in agricultural colleges nationwide; it remains a province of graduate schools.

Graduate education in the Department remained healthy during the Hooper Era. Thesis and dissertations encompassed diverse subject matter. Although none reflected the impact of molecular biology on plant pathology, such studies were under way in bacteriology and virology. The Ph. D. dissertations by Rosemary Ford and Penny Hunst, advisees of Sue A. Tolin, came as close to molecular as the Department would reach. Their contribution will be discussed in the section on Virology. Most thesis and dissertations had practical implications for plant health management.

Several course changes were made during the Hooper Era. The following list gives changes from the list at the beginning of this section:

Forest Pathology Laboratory to Forest Pathology __ 3030 to 4270

Air Pollution Damage to Plants from plant pathology to plant physiology, title change; new title, Plant Responses to Air Pollutants. Still 4010.

Phytopathogenic Agents - 4050, and Plant Pathogenic Agents - 5130, changed respectively to: Plant Disease Agents (Fungi) - 5001. Plant Disease Agents (Viruses, Prokaryotes) - 5002. Plant Disease Agents (Nematodes, Vectors, Parasitic Plants, & Environment Stress) - 5003. Plant Disease Agents - 5130 combined with 5003, 5040 combined with 5002. 5221 & 5222 Clinic I & II now 5010.

6020 Principles of Plant Disease Development - not listed in '84.

5790 into 5011 - Diseases of Horticultural Crops.

5311-12 Pest Management Systems I & II becomes Integrated Pest Mgt. I & II.

There was an impending change from the quarter to a semester system requiring again a change in course structure. Thus, from about 1982 to 1986, plant pathology courses were in a state of flux.

Deleted were:

4050 - Phytopathogens

5130 - Plant Pathogenic Agents

5180 - Diseases of Landscape Trees, Ornamentals and Turfgrasses

5190 - Phytopathogenic Fungi

Changed to a lower level:

5311 to 4311 Integrated Pest Plant Management, 3H, C, II.

5312 to 4312 Integrated Pest Plant Management 9H, 3C, III.

Changed to higher level:

3030 to 4270 and retitled Forest Pathology, 3H, 3L, 4C, II.

New courses installed:

4680 - Virology, 3H, 3C, I.

5001 - Plant Disease Agents, Fungi (change from 5190)

5002 - Plant Disease Agents, Viruses and Prokaryotes (change from 5040, addition of Prokaryotes).

5003 - Plant Disease Agents, Nematodes, Vectors, Parasitic Plants, and Environmental Stress (change from 5030 and addition of other agents)

5010 - Plant Disease Agents: Clinical Experience

The catalogue entries were prepared about 18 months before the catalogue was published, therefore, some courses were changed before it appeared.

Degrees Granted in Plant Pathology, Hooper Era, 1980-84
Year Degree Recipient
(Advisor)
Thesis or Dissertation Title (NT = non thesis)
1981 Ph. D. J. A. Barron, III
(Phipps)
Effect of herbicide on Cylindrocladium crotalariae and the Cylindrocladium black rot (CBR) disease of peanut.
1981 M. S. L. F. Benoit Ozone effect on long term growth and reproduction in eastern white pine.
1981 M. S., NT C.M. Berg
(Lacy)
Bacterial soft rot of iris.
1981 M. S. L. E. Datnoff
(Lacy)
Detection of Plasmodiophora brassicae in and decontamination of irrigation water.
1981 M. S. S. F. Duchelle
(Skelly)
The response of indigenous vegetation in Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia to photochemical oxidant air pollution.
1981 M. S. W. H Elmer
(Stipes)
Soil fate and systemicity in Arachis hypogaea L. of dicloran, iprodione and vinclozolin.
1981 Ph. D. R. H. Ford
(Tolin)
Comparative studies in two strains of peanut stunt virus: Characterization, in vitro interaction, and localization of the gene for pathogenicity on Glycine max 'york.'
1981 M. S. L. S. O. Graney
(Miller)
Interspecific and intraspecific morphological comparisons of six isolates Heterodera schachtii and two isolates of H. glycines.
1981 Ph. D. P. L. Hunst
(Tolin)
Soybean mosaic virus: Strains, ultrastructure and movement.
1981 M. S. A. L. Lackner
(Alexander)
Incidence and pathogenicity of Verticicladiella procera Kendrick on pines in Virginia.
1981 M. S. J. E. Nellessen
(Skelly)
Screening white pine Christmas tree seedlings for ozone sensitivity.
1981 M. S. B. L. Tepper
(Yoder/Stipes)
Influence of selected fungicides on germination of conidia of Penicillium expansum and Monilinia fructicola and postharvest control of penicillium blue mold of apple and brown rot of peach and nectarine.
1981 M. S. W. F. Waterfield, III Calcium nutrition of three tobacco cultivars affecting lipid content and susceptibility to black shank incited by Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae.
1981 M. S. R. W. Wendt
(Griffin)
Presence of hypovirulent Endothia parasitica (Murr.) P. J. & H. W. Anders. In the general population of American chestnut, Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh., stump sprouts.
1981 Ph. D. R. L. Wick
(Moore)
Histopathology of Japanese holly black root disease incited by Thielaviopsis basicola and the role of endomycorrhizae inresistance.
1981 M. S., NT J. D. Willmott, III
(Roane)
Control of Helminthosporium stripe of barley by using organic solvents to infuse fungicides into seeds.
1981 Ph. D. Y.-S. Yang
(Skelly)
Variation in the physiological processes of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) differing in sensitivity to ozone, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxide.
1982 Ph. D. R. L. Dow
(Powell/Porter)
Relationship of environmental factors to development of Sclerotinia minor and Sclerotinia blight of peanut.
1982 Ph. D. F. V. Hebard
(Griffin)
Biology of virulent and hypovirulent Endothia parasitica on American chestnut (Castanea dentata).
1982 Ph. D. M. L. Mahoney
(Skelly/Chevone)
An analysis of the potential effects of air pollutants emitted during coal combustion on yellow poplar and loblolly pine.
1982 M. S. B. W. Perry
(Griffin)
An analysis of spatial changes in the occurrence of Cylindrocladium black rot of peanut utilizing false color infrared photography.
1982 M. S. M. Rittenhouse
(Griffin)
Inoculum pattern and relationship between incidence of black root rot of tobacco and inoculum density of Thielaviopsis basicola in field soil.
1982 Ph. D. M. J. Weaver
(Stipes)
The etiology of the decline of Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) on Virginia landscapes: A survey of stress factors.
1983 Ph. D. D. C. Bays
(Tolin/Roane)
Variability of the peanutmottle virus reaction in soybean (Glycine max).
1983 M. S. F. J. Butterfield
(Tolin)
Identifying of watermelon mosaic virus in pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) in Virginia.
1983 Ph. D. T. K. Kroll
(Moore/Lacy)
An analysis of management practices for the control of cabbage clubroot II. An examination of clubroot resistant crucifers.
1983 M. S. T. M. Kurdyla
(Alexander)
Predicting the colonization of Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.Fr.) Bref. in thinned loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations of high hazard site.
1983 Ph. D. J. J. Muchovej
(Couch)
The nature of infection of leaves of Agrostis paulustris.
1983 M. S., NT G. S. Reddick
(Chevone)
Ozone effects on forest vegetation.
1983 M. S., NT M. P. Salazar
(Lacy)
Bacterial canker of poinsettia.
1983 M. S. J. A. Thompson
(Elliott)
Biology and economics of control of Meloidogyne hapla associated with soybean.
1984 Ph. D. O. S. Achwanya
(Moore)
Effect of ozone, sulfur dioxide and alpha and delta races of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. & Magn.) Bri. & Cav. On bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).
1984 Ph. D. E. Grant
(Reilly)
Interactions of a tobacco cyst nematode and the black shank fungus with flue-cured tobacco.
1984 M. S. A. C. Y. Hsia
(Elliott)
Studies in host-parasite interactions of plant-parasitic namatodes in strawberry field of Virginia.
1984 M. S. W. W. P. W.
(Wills)
Effects of root media and Kularatine control agents on propagule formations and survival of Phytophthora cinnamoni Rands and root rot of azalea caused by P. cinnamoni
1984 M. S. R. K. Niles
(Elliott)
Extraction procedures and population dynamice of plant-parasitic nematodes associates with non-bearing apple.
1984 M. S. P. R. Schmidt
(Couch)
Influence of non-oomycete active systemic fungicides on the severity of Pythium blight of bentgrass.

From the foregoing list, there were 17 thesis and six non-thesis M. S. degrees, and 12 Ph. D. degrees conferred in the Hooper Era. The contents and contributions of the thesis and dissertations will be discussed in the various subject matter sections.There was a very tragic event among students during the Hooper Era. Bruce Perry was killed in a water skiing accident after completing the M. S. degree requirements but before the degree was conferred. The degree was conferred posthumously. Thereupon, the Perry Family and the Department established the Bruce Perry Scholarship. According to Kriton Hatzios in the book "50th and 110th Anniversary Celebration, September 24, 1999" (p. 46), "The Bruce Perry Scholarship was established with funds donated by the Arthur W. Perry family and friends in memory of Bruce William Perry (M. S. '82), an alumnus of the Department." The scholarship "Funds annual awards for tuition payments to outstanding students in the Department." The first award was made the 1984-85 academic year. Awardees will be listed for the Moore Era.

Fruit Pathology

In 1983, the Virginia fruit industry was valued at $53 million annually to the growers. The overall value to the state was 3.5 times the grower value, or $185.5 million. The figure will vary from year to year by approximately $5 million (size of crop, quality, carry-over products, etc.). Diseases are the limiting factor for fruit production. The loss would be 100% of fresh fruit without cultural and chemical control. There would be approximately 25% utility fruit, but no US fancy. Weed control in tree and small fruits is a critical production practice. Weeds compete with fruit plants for moisture and nutrients. Weeds also increase disease and insect problems. It has been estimated that good weed control has increased fruit yields by 8% (Comprehensive Rev., 1984). Fruit pathology research and extension was conducted by C. R. Drake at Blacksburg and by K. S. Yoder at Winchester. A. P. Elliott conducted nematode research on some small fruits at Blacksburg.

A great deal of annual effort went into evaluating fungicides for efficacy on apple peach and nectarine. Reports were published for the scientific community (Fungicide & Nematicide Tests vols. 36-40, 1981-1985.) and as recommendations in the annual Virginia Pest Control Guide (Va. Coop. Ext. Ser. Publ. 456-001.). In addition, a Virginia Spray Calendar was prepared annually by the Departments of Entomology, Horticulture, and Plant Pathology, Physiology and Weed Science. Thus, the scientific, commercial, and farmer groups were appraised of this effort.

It was essential to continue "Epidemiological studies to provide more reliable means of forecasting apple scab and powdery mildew infection periods. Correlation of early season sporetrap catches with temperature, humidity, leaf wetness and rainfall data has provided an understanding of the reasons for increased disease prevalence in severe infection years. Research has demonstrated potential for improved disease control and reduction of fungicide usage by more accurate early season spray timing (as indicated by epidemiological studies) and adaptation of the spray interval to the residual characteristics of the fungicide and prevailing weather conditions. Mixtures of two types of fungicides have improved control, particularly where fungicide resistance has occurred" (Comprehensive Review, 1984).

In the late 1970's, Brooks spot, caused by Mycosphaerella pomi, a minor disease of apple, became more prevalent. It was demonstrated by Yoder that fungicides already in use, Benlate + Dikar, would control the disease (Plant Dis. 66: 564-566, 1982.).

Yoder collaborated with his predecessor, K. D. Hickey to publish a review article on the control of apple powder mildew, Podosphaera leucotricha. They described the current mildew control measures and highlighted the potential of sterol-inhibiting compounds for mildew control (Plant Dis. 67: 245-248, 1983.).

Sterol-inhibiting compounds had been introduced in the late 1970's as potential orchard fungicides. Yoder had experimented with them and had found them useful in special situations. The research was summarized by Yoder as follows: "Several compounds in the ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitor group have shown outstanding control of major apple and peach fungal diseases when compared to standard compounds in laboratory, greenhouse, and orchard experiments. Field test involving sterol-inhibiting fungicides have demonstrated that disease control is improved if these compounds are applied under slow drying conditions. Deleterious fruit physiological effects, although minimal under1983 conditions in northern Virginia, may also be somewhat accentuated by applications under slow-drying conditions. Outstanding after-infection control of cedar apple rust by triforine and triadimefon was demonstrated with applications several days after an infection period. These are the first fully-registered fungicides which have after-infection activity on rust. However, some of the sterol inhibiting fungicides have provided questionable disease control on apples and some severe phytotoxicity on peach fruit and leaves during 1984" (Comprehensive Review 1984; Plant Dis. 65: 998-1001, 1981; 66: 564-566, 1982.).

Much of the research leading up to the use of sterol-inhibiting fungicides was conducted in a M. S. thesis project by Brian Tepper under the guidance of Yoder and R. J. Stipes acting as co-chairman of Tepper's committee. Tepper studied the chemicals under the proprietary names. Later they were given the names triforine and triadimefon (Tepper, M. S. Thesis, V.P.I. & S.U. 1981; Tepper & Yoder, Plant Dis. 66: 829-831, 1982.).

"Surveys of Winchester area apple storages led to early discovery that Penicillium expansum, causal organism of apple blue mold, had become resistant to the benzimidazole-type fungicides in 1977. Subsequent monitoring surveys have demonstrated the presence of resistant strains in most northern Virginia storages (totaling over 5 million bushels, or half of the state's crop). Benzimidazole-resistant peach brown rot organism, Monilinia fructicola, was detected in 1981. A sterol-inhibiting fungicide with a different mode of action provides excellent control of these resistant organisms," (Comprehensive Review 1984).

"A field test of commercial fruit fungicides showed that several compounds now being considered for re-registration by EPA are more effective than the best alternatives if these materials were not re-registered. This test has added to the data base needed to support re-registration of these fungicides which compose over 60% of those now used by Virginia growers to control a group of apple diseases which can cause complete losses if left uncontrolled during wet growing seasons." Both Drake and Yoder participated in the re-registration program (Comprehensive Review, 1984).

Drake was interested in high density plantings of orchard trees and trellis culture of apples. In dense culture, he was able to observe disease reactions, detect the most resistant cultivars, and conduct fungicide tests on a minimum area. He also cooperated with an orchardist, J. M. Harmon in Patrick County, on the evaluation of peach cultivars for disease reactions; 100 peach and 27 nectarine cultivars were tested. Several cultivars were found to resist one or more diseases.

Virus disease research was handled by Yoder at Winchester as a contribution to Regional Project NE-14 in cooperation with Tolin and Elliott at Blacksburg. They sought to improve methods of virus detection in fruit trees, report the effects of viruses, and develop management programs to minimize losses from them. Target viruses were tomato ring spot virus (TmRSV) causing apple union necrosis and stem pitting of stone fruits; apple stem pitting virus (SPV); apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (CLSV); and apple stem-grooving virus (SGV). Single and multiple virus inoculations revealed the potency of dual infections.

Alma Elliott oversaw a survey of nematodes in apple orchards, vineyards, and strawberry and blueberry production sites. Virtually all species of plant parasitic nematodes were recovered. Graduate student R. K. Niles produced the only major research report from these studies. He studied the population dynamics of nematodes in two non-bearing orchard sites. Much of his thesis was devoted to seeking consistent, efficient extraction procedures (R. K. Niles, V.P.I. & S.U. M. S. Thesis, 1984.). More details appear in the section on Nematology.

Under the guidance of Elliott, graduate student A. C.-Y. Hsia, conducted a study on strawberry nematodes in Virginia during 1983. Hsia surveyed many fields on a state-wide basis; Pratylenchus spp. were the most widely distributed. He also detected nematodes in the genera Meloidogyne, Tylenchorhynchus, Hoplolaimus, Helicotylenchus, and Xiphinema. A special study was made on the host-nematode relations of 'Guardian' strawberry and M. hapla, the northern rootknot nematode. In field tests, Aldicarb plus DCPA (=Temik + Dacthal) were found to be effective in reducing nematode densities (Hsia, V.P.I. & S.U., M. S. Thesis, 1983.).

M. J. Weaver worked as a graduate student assistant in the Chemical, Drug, and Pesticide Unit at V.P.I. & S.U. from 1977 to 1980. From 1980 to 1991, he was a member of the Department with faculty status. After he completed a Ph. D. program in 1982, Hooper assigned him to responsibility for an Extension program in integrated pest management of grape and strawberry disease. Weaver refined the grape disease control recommendations and brought them in line with those of neighboring states. He contacted many grape growers and taught them to diagnose and control grape diseases. His expertise was in safe and proper use of pesticides. He was a co-author of the publication, "Disease of grapes and their control in Virginia" (Va. Coop. Ext. Serv., Publ 450-232, 1984.). He made no progress with strawberry diseases.

There was no great leap forward in fruit pathology during the Hooper Era. Instead, there was constant effort to obtain research results that would provide growers with the information to keep them competitive in profitable operations. Drake and Yoder collaborated to revise the spray bulletins and other disease control publications making sure that the latest pesticide information was distributed. Both utilized the popular printed media, Extension publications, radio and TV, demonstrations, field days and personal contacts to achieve their goals. Growers were never lacking for current information

Soybean

The research in soybean pathology was directed primarily toward locating sources of virus resistance, the genetics of this resistance, and incorporating new or useful sources of the resistance into productive cultivars. Leaders in this work were C. W. Roane, pathologist who coordinated field work, including planting, inoculating, and scoring; Sue A. Tolin, virologist who identified and maintained viruses, increased and oversaw preparation of inoculation for field studies, and G. R. Buss, plant breeder, who acquired cultivars and lines, propagated and maintained seed stocks, and made crosses between various soybean cultivars for genetic studies. Lloyd Flinchum, Research Supervisor, was the principal technician who managed greenhouse and field plantings, and maintained equipment pertinent to planting, culture, inoculation and harvesting. Several graduate students, especially David Bays and Rosemary Ford, contributed to the project.Simultaneous with the genetic study, Tolin advised three doctoral students, Ford, Penny Hunst, and Bays in studies of the biology and variation of soybean-infecting viruses; namely, Ford on peanut stunt virus (PSV), Hunst on soybean mosaic virus (SMV), and Bays on peanut mottle virus (PMV). For dissertation titles, see the Instruction section of the Hooper Era. Their research will be discussed in the Virology section.

The problems facing the soybean virus research group were discussed in the Foy Era. To summarize, a few genes for reaction to viruses had been discovered but until the V.P.I. & S.U. group started its research, no allelism tests had been conducted. Numerous soybean cultivars had been described as having resistance to SMV or PMV, none was known for PSV. The V.P.I. group had made some progress in identifying gene loci and recognizing alleles. Most of what had been accomplished was recorded in abstracts of papers read at American Phytopathological Society meetings or in The Soybean Genetics Newsletter. During the Hooper Era the first refereed paper appeared (J. Heredity 74: 289-291, 1983) and several additional abstracts were published. It was shown that genes in 'York' conditioning reaction to SMV and PMV were closely linked (3.7 ± 0.8% recombination) Therefore, they were often inherited as a unit and despite the fact that they were known to occur separately in the parents of York, many researchers believed PM and SM resistances were conditioned by a single gene. Until further evidence was available, the gene for SMV reaction was considered to be rsv, which was later relabeled Rpv, consistent with information from other authors. Tests for allelism were already underway.

A preliminary report on allelism for Rpv genes was published in 1983 (Soybean Genet. Newsl. 10: 102-104.). In that paper, the cultivars York, Shore, Arksoy, and Dorman were shown to have a gene conditioning reaction to PMV at a common locus and the gene in 'CNS' was at a different locus. Since additional genetic studies were underway, the authors (Buss, Roane, Tolin) refrained from labeling the CNS gene.

In an additional preliminary report by Roane, Tolin and Buss, the inheritance of SMV resistance was studied in three resistant cultivars; 'Marshall' and 'Kwanggyo' were monogenic and 'P. I. 96983' was digenic resistant. Previously, P. I. 96983 had been reported as mongenic. The discrepancy was explained by the choice of SMV strains used by the various workers. The SMV strain employed in Virginia detected two genes, the strains used by others apparently were virulent against one of the two genes and thus gave monogenic segregation in F2 (Soybean Genet. Newsl., 10: 136-138, 1983.).

From the information available, Roane, Tolin, and Buss proposed application of the gene-for-gene hypothesis to the soybean-SMV interactions (Soybean Genet. Newsl. 10: 139-143, 1983.). The paper was intended to stir up reaction from other soybean scientists but little was noted possibly because so few were involved in soybean-virus genetics and because genetic analysis of viruses was not yet feasible. Viruses could be classified into virulence groups (strains) and this fact along with knowledge of genetic differences in the host made application of the gene-for-gene hypothesis possible. Bays, in his study of variability in PMV, concluded that with a selection of PMV isolates, one could identify PMV resistance genes in soybean (Bays, Ph. D. Dissertation, V.P.I. & S.U., 1983.). This is one of the practical values of the gene-for-gene concept.

In other soybean research, the control of nematodes, primarily in peanut-producing counties, received considerable attention. The change in densities of nematode populations before planting and after four cultivars were grown were reported. 'Essex' supported the greatest increase, 'Bedford' the least. 'Forrest' and 'Lee 74' were intermediate. When only Heterodera glycines, the soybean cyst nematode, was considered, reproduction was highest on Essex and Lee 74, and lowest on Forrest and Bedford (Phytopathology 73: 832, 1983.). Under certain conditions, the spiral nematode, Helicotylenchus dihystera was damaging to soybean.

Results with nematicide treatment of soybean fields were reported in the publication Fungicide and Nematicide Tests 37: 199-198, 1982; 38: 10-11, 1983. Recommendations to growers based on the published reports were incorporated in the annual Virginia Cooperative Extension Service publication "Virginia Pest Control Guide," Publ. 456-001. Nematicides recommended in 1983 for soybeans and were, non-fumigants, Nemacur 15G, Mocap 10G, and Temik 15G; fumigants, Soilbrom 90 and Telone II. Phipps and Elliott were the principal researchers in cooperation with Stromberg and Babineau.

Graduate student J. A. Thompson made a study of the "Biology and economics of control of Meloidogyne hapla associated with soybean," in which he field tested for effective and economically optimum rates of nematicide application. Elliott was his mentor (Thompson, M. S. Thesis, V.P.I. & S.U., 1983.). He found that with Nemacur (= phenamiphos), 2.25 kg/ha gave an optimum profit.

Peanut

The most important contribution to peanut pathology by anyone associated with the Department was the publication by the American Phytopathological Society in 1983 of the "Compendium of Peanut Diseases." It was edited and compiled by D. M. Porter, Plant Pathologist, U.S.D.A., A.R.S., assigned to the Suffolk, Va. Tidewater Research Center; D. H. Smith, Plant Pathologist at the Plant Disease Research Station, Yoakum, Texas; and R. Rodriguez-Kabana, Plant Pathologist at Auburn University. Porter also prepared the following sections and contributed 44 colored photographs: Sclerotinia Blight, Diplodia Collar Rot, Botrytis Blight, Genetic Disorders, Chlorophyll Deficiency, Lightning Injury, Hail Injury, Frost Injury, and Drought Stress.

P. M. Phipps, V.P.I. & S.U. Research and Extension Plant Pathologist at the Center prepared the section on Cylindrocladium Black Rot, and contributed 5 color photographs. S. A. Tolin, Plant Virologist at V.P.I. & S.U., Blacksburg prepared the section on Peanut Stunt and contributed one color picture. K. H. Garren, U.S.D.A. Plant Pathologist, a retiree from the Tidewater Research Center contributed two color photographs. Two V.P.I. & S.U. Entomologists, S. L. Poe and J. C. Smith, also contributed sections and photographs.

In 1982, the Compendium editors had collaborated to publish an 85 page chapter,. Peanut Diseases, in the book Peanut Science and Technology, edited by H. Pattee and C. T. Young, American Peanut Research and Education Society. No doubt, this paved the way for the peanut disease Compendium.

The fungus diseases demanding attention in the 1980's were Cylindrocladium black rot (CBR), Sclerotinia blight (SB), and leaf spot. Both Phipps and Porter were bearing down on these diseases. CBR, caused by Cylindrocladium crotalariae (teleomorph, Calonectria crotalariae), had been the primary "bad boy" of the Couch and Foy Eras. In the Hooper Era, Phipps continued interest in CBR by seeking chemical means of controlling it. In 1981, he reported Terrocide, Terrogel and Vapam effectively reduced CBR incidence and microsclerotial populations and increased peanut yields and per acre crop value. The Great Lakes Chemical Corp. labeled their products as Terr-O-Cide and Terr-O-Gel. They were formulated with mixtures of either ethylene dibromide or 1, 3-dichloropropane and trichloromethane. Vapam, a product from Stauffer Chemical Co., contains sodium methyldithiocarbamate which releases methyl isothiocyanate (MIT) into the soil (Fungicide & Nematicide Tests 37: 96, 1982.). However, by 1983, none of these products were labeled for control of CBR during the Hooper Era. They could be used on peanut for other purposes.

In March 1981, J. M. Barron, III completed a dissertation on the "Effects of herbicides on Cylindrocladium crotolariae and Cylindrocladium black rot (CBR) disease of peanut." Barron obtained no evidence that herbicides decreased the incidence of CBR but both dinitramine and dinoseb at some rates of application increased the severity of CBR (Peanut Sci. 10: 101-106, 1983.).

Gary J. Griffin and several graduate students (J. A. Barron, III, T. B. Brenneman, P. Graham, D. T. Krigsvold, C. Rittenhouse, L. Specht, and J. D. Taylor) in cooperation with Phipps and M. G. Hale, and with the help of Technician G. S. Tomimatsu, a former graduate student, made intensive studies into the distribution and density of CBR inoculum. They found that microsclerotia did not occur randomly in the soil but were clumped. They also determined that the number of necrotic sites on a root system was far below the number of infection sites. Significant publications relating to this work are: Phytopathology 71: 1297-1302, 1982; 72: 511-517, 859-864, 1982; Canad. Jour. Plant Pathol. 5: 81-88, 1983.

In 1982, Bruce W. Perry completed a non-thesis report entitled, "An analysis of spatial changes in the occurrence of Cylindrocladium black rot of peanut utilizing false color infrared photography" in which he studied photographs available from N. L. Powell of the Suffolk research center. Perry assessed the changes in fields producing peanuts in even years 1974, 1976, and 1978, and in odd years 1975, 1977, and 1979. He observed fluctuations and new foci of CBR.

He concluded that "With all its potential problems the aerial photograph is a practical and economical way to analyze plant disease." Perry graduated, went on vacation to Connecticut and was killed in a boating accident while water skiing, June 20, 1982. In consequence of this tragedy, the Perry family and friends established the Bruce Perry Scholarship for graduate students in the Department. The scholarship was first awarded in 1984 to Sandy Overton.

Roberta Dow completed her Ph. D. Dissertation in 1982 on a study of environmental factors affecting the development of Sclerotinia blight (SB). She reported R. H. of 95-100% for at least 12 hours was necessary to activate inoculum and that all disease phases were optimal at 20-25 C. Young plants were more susceptible than old ones. These and other parameters were incorporated into a disease forecasting system. The system was not as successful for forecasting use of fungicides as had been the leaf spot advisory. Dow's study was the most comprehensive analysis of environmental factors affecting SB.

Significant publications related to research on Sclerotinia minor are: Phytopathology 70: 720-722, 1980; 73: 636-640, 1983; 74: 755, 757, 1984; Peanut Sci. 8: 48-52, 1981; Plant Dis. 65: 591-594, 1981; 66: 385-387, 1982.

In the Hooper Era, Sclerotinia blight (SB) succeeded CBR as the most destructive disease. Porter devoted almost full-time to SB research, and CBR was supplanted by SB in Phipps' program. The SB fungus had been found in Virginia in 1971, and by 1982 it had been declared the most destructive peanut disease. The majority of Porter's publications in the Hooper Era pertained to SB. Most addressed the pathology and ecology of the fungus whereas Phipps sought chemical approaches to control but no chemicals were labeled for it during the Hooper Era (Fungicide and Nematicide Tests 37: 96, 1982; 38: 77-79, 1983; 39: 139-140, 1984.).

Control of peanut leaf spot caused by Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium personatum had been the subject of continuous research at Suffolk since 1938. During the Hooper Era, Phipps annually tested materials for efficacious control of leaf spot (Fungicide and Nematicide Tests 36: 88, 1981; 37: 97, 1982; 38: 76, 1983; 39: 140-141, 1984; 40: 152-153, 1985.). Results from these tests were incorporated with recommendations published in popular farm press articles and in annual Extension Service pest control guides. About 10 products were recommended singly or in various combinations in 1983 (Va. Pest Control Guide. Va. Coop. Ext. Ser. Publ. 456-001 rev. ann.).

One objective of the leaf spot tests was to demonstrate that the leaf spot advisory, developed by a computerized agro-environmental monitoring system (AEMS) was a reliable means of recommending spray dates for leaf spot control. From 1979 to 1983, 4.2 fewer sprays per season were applied than when a 14-day scheduled program was followed. Production and crop values were about equal under both programs, but because the advisory program reduced pesticide applications, it was much more profitable (Dept. Comprehensive Review, Nov. 5-8, 1984: 207).

A predictive nematode assay pilot program was initiated by Phipps with the North Carolina Department of Agriculture at Raleigh. The program is similar to the soil testing program for fertilizer needs. Samples are obtained in late winter, nematode species and counts are determined and growers are advised to apply nematicides only if potentially damaging populations are detected. As a result 60% of the peanut acreage was treated in 1985, down from 95% in 1979. This represents a major saving to growers (Comprehensive Rev., 1984: 208, 216.).

Tables describing appropriate pesticides for peanut disease were published annually in the Virginia Pest Control Guide, Va. Coop. Ext. Publ. 456-01. Product, rates of formulation, method and timing of application, and precautions were listed for each disease requiring pesticide usage.

This section on peanut pathology cannot be closed without paying tribute to Kenneth H. Garren who ended his career at the Tidewater Research and Education Center, Suffolk, on January 16, 1981. He served as a U.S.D.A. research plant pathologist in Suffolk from 1955 to 1981, and thereby was an adjunct professor in the Department. He had contributed significantly to the control of stem rot by the herbicide-non-dirting procedure, and to the pathology of pod rot, black rot, and Aspergillus generated mycotoxins. In 1982, he was elected Fellow in the American Peanut Research and Education Society; the nominators stated:

"The nominee is regarded as an outstanding peanut scientist. This recognition is world-wide. His global work, however, has not been confined to peanuts. He is recognized as an excellent technical writer and also as a competent writer and speaker on peanuts at the popular or semi-technical level. He has a reputation as a good interpreter and explainer of the research of others, a good reviewer of research results, and as an editor of technical writings. He has been called the world's authority on peanut diseases by such people as Dr. Coyt Wilson, Associate Director of Research Emeritus, V.P.I. & S.U. and Dr. Ron Gibbons, Leader of the Groundnut Improvement Programme of ICRISAT. Some of his ideas, concepts and methodologies in plant pathological research on peanuts are evident today and are in common practice in many institutions."

Thus, Virginia lost an eminent scientist and guardian of peanut culture. Additional comments about peanut pathology may be found in sections on Nematology and Virology.

Tobacco

An interesting summary of the importance of tobacco as an economic resource in Virginia appears in the Departmental Comprehensive Review of 1984. It is reprinted here:

"Tobacco is the major farm income-producing crop grown in Virginia. The crop value was over $170 million in 1983. Tobacco production involves over 15000 farms and provides the equivalent of 7760 year round jobs. Tobacco is grown in 50 of Virginia's 96 counties. Besides income from farms, tobacco creates income from auction warehouses, processing plants, leaf storage facilities, and tobacco manufacturing. Virginia is the second largest tobacco manufacturing state in the United States. In addition, the need for farm and manufacturing materials, supplies, and equipment, as well as services ranging from transportation to advertising, gives significant additional employment and adds millions of dollars to personal and business income of the state.

There are four types of tobacco grown in Virginia, flue-cured (39,000 acres), burley (10,000 acres), dark-fired (5,000 acres) and sun-cured (500 acres). The diseases and disease losses are different for each type and change due to the location. During the past five years the losses due to disease and disorders has ranged from 1.5% to 6% of the crop value or 2 to 8 million dollars. These losses are less than or equal to losses which occur in other tobacco states.

The diseases and disorders in which losses greater than 0.1% of crop value have occurred in the past five years are as follows: blue mold, tobacco mosaic virus, black shank, nematodes (root knot and tobacco cyst), black root rot, aphid-borne virus complex (tobacco etch virus, etc.), weather fleck, chemical injury, angular leaf spot. Other diseases and disorders are considered minor but can cause severe losses to individual producers in unusual circumstances. At this time, viruses are the leading cause of losses in both flue-cured and burley tobacco." (Comp. Rev., 1984: 198).

John J. Reilly at the Blackstone Research Center was the principal research worker involved in tobacco pathology. He cooperated with Dean Komm, Extension Pathologist and T. R. Terrill and J. L. Jones, Research and Extension Agronomists, respectively, also located at Blackstone. He also conducted research projects in cooperation with Alma P. Elliott, G. J. Griffin, L. D. Moore, and Sue A. Tolin, all at Blacksburg.

Although it was stated in the Comprehensive Review, 1984, that viruses were most destructive pathogens of tobacco, there were no profound research devoted to them in the Hooper Era. Cultivars and breeding lines were routinely screened for reaction to tobacco etch and tobacco mosaic viruses; there was no other research addressing them. Reilly published a paper describing effects of sequential virus infections on flue-cured tobacco cultivar 'Speight G-28.' Plants were inoculated with tobacco etch virus (TEV), tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), and tobacco ring spot virus (TRSV), one, two, or three viruses in all sequential combinations. In the sequences, second inoculations were made two weeks after the first and third inoculations two weeks after the second. Uninoculated plants were superior in all respects. Generally, TMV was the least destructive alone and TEV was most destructive. In double and triple inoculations, damage was greatest when TEV was first and least when TRSV was first. Correct diagnosis by symptoms was usually correct for single inoculations, but difficult or impossible with multiple inoculations. The three viruses are vectored differently; TMV by sap; TEV by aphids; TRSV by nematodes. Thus, multiple infections are quite probable (Tob. Sci. 27: 23-27, 1983).

Reilly and Komm experimented with different concentrations of milk sprays for control of TMV, in an effort to verify to farmers that the recommended rates of application he followed. Their experiment showed that the recommended rate provided the minimum effective concentration of milk. As a result, they recommended that the concentration should be increased rather than decreased (Tob. Sci. 27: 62-62, 1983).

The most destructive fungous diseases of tobacco were blue mold, black shank, and black root rot. Reilly cooperated with pathologists from Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina in testing 28 released cultivars, 35 candidate cultivars and one breeding line for reaction to P. parasitica var. nicotianae (P.p.m.) at three infested sites (No Virginia site included.). Reilly conducted greenhouse tests by a method that had been developed by Troutman, Henderson, and LaPrade at Chatham, Virginia (Tob. Sci. 4: 109-111, 1962.). The workers concluded that field tests were more reliable for selecting the most resistant cultivars than were greenhouse trials. The latter were considered useful in determining reactions to specific biotypes (Tob. Sci. 28: 153-155, 1984.).

A significant cooperative effort was the Predictive Nematode Assay procedure (Elliott et al. Ext. Pub. 450-070, 1982, -017, 1983, etc.) originally developed by Osborne, later coordinated by Fox and Elliott. All field station pathologists participated. The approach was to predict the need or not to use nematicides. Properly executed, the program reduced the needless treatment of some fields with toxic chemicals. Samples were taken from farm fields designated for tobacco production the following spring. Based on populations of nematodes in the sample, rotations, nematicide applications, or no treatment were recommended. The Plant Clinic had an unpublished chart of threshold numbers to guide clinician in making recommendations.

Reilly collaborated with Komm and Elliott in reviewing the history of nematode detection and losses caused by the tobacco cyst nematode (TCN) 1961-1982 (Plant Dis. 67: 1249-1251, 1983). They reported spread and losses caused by TCN and implied that the predictive nematode assay detected many previously unknown infestations.

The interaction of P. parasitica var. nicotianae (Ppn) and the tobacco cyst nematode (TCN), Globodera solanacearum, was the subject of a dissertation project executed by Earl Grant with Reilly and Elliott acting as his co-advisors. Studies with black shank, caused by Ppn were conducted by Grant, wherein he inoculated moderately resistant flue-cured 'Coker 319' and susceptible 'Va 81' with zoospore populations of 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 per gram of dry soil. For Va 81, disease development was rated 100%; for Coker 319, disease development increased linearly with inoculum load (Grant and Reilly, Phytopathology 72: 707, 1982.).

In a comparable study with TCN, inoculum densities of 1, 5, 10, 20, and 40 cysts per cm3 of soil decreased plant height and shoot dry weight of susceptible cultivars 'McNair 944' and Coker 319 but not of resistant cultivar Va 81. The higher density (40) was most detrimental (Grant, Reilly, and Elliott, J. Nematol. 14: 443, abstr.).

Grant found interactions between the two pathogens to be, "Antagonistic, additive, or synergistic and dependent on cultivar resistance, inoculum densities, sequence of pathogen infection, and soil moisture and temperature. On cultivars resistant to the fungus (resistance was never 100%), the interaction was "Antagonistic in a high moisture-low temperature regime and synergistic in a high temperature-low moisture regime" (Grant, Ph. D. Dissertation, 1984.).

In a split root system, TCN on half, Ppn on the other half, the nematode had to be present on the same root for synergism to be expressed. In sequential inoculations, simultaneous inoculations resulted in maximum disease. Certain combinations of metalaxyl and fenamiphos gave season-long control of Ppn and early season control of TCN (Grant, Ph. D. Dissertation, 1984.).

Reilly cooperated with Komm and Elliott to seek optimum control procedures for Ppn and TCN. Results were published in both technical (Fungicide & Nematicide Tests 37: 201, 1981; 38: 15, 17, 18, 1982.) and Extension publications (Va. Coop. Ext. Ser. 436-047, 1981, revised annually; Va. Pest Control Guide 1981, Ext. Publ. 456-001. rev. ann.). The presence of both TCN and Ppn in the same field seriously complicated tobacco production.

Reilly participated with L. D. Moore and T. R. Terrill in three studies on air pollution effects (weather fleck) of tobacco (Tob. Sci. 21: 29-30:, 1977: Proc. Am. Chem. Soc. Symposium 269-289, 1977; Weed Sci. 30: 260-1=263, 1982). In the first, it was shown that cultivars varied in degree of weather fleck at different locations in different years. Some were little affected and some were constantly susceptible. Thus, genotype appears to affect response making resistance a breedable trait (Tob. Sci. 12). In the second study, varying N-K-P ratios revealed that high phosphorus and high nitrogen favored low reactions to air pollutants (Chem. Soc. Symp). In the third study the effects of three herbicides, isopropalin, pebulate, and diphenamid, on weather fleck were examined (Weed Sci. 30). Isopropalin and diphenamid "reduced oxidant injury 2 to 4 weeks after transplanting but not later in the season. Pebulate had no consistent affect."

The status of tobacco disease control is thoroughly described in the 1983 issue of Extension Publication 456-001, pp. 219-231; D. A. Komm prepared these pages. All methods of disease control are considered for each economically important disease in Virginia. There are extensive tables listing specific diseases, chemicals and their commercial names, rates of application, and methods of application. The final tables list disease reactions of available flue-cured, fire-cured, and burley tobacco cultivars.

Cereal Crops

With the appointment of Erik L. Stromberg on November 1, 1981, cereal pathology research began to take a different turn. Up to then, Curtis W. Roane had emphasized breeding disease resistant crops in cooperation with the corn and small grains breeders. The testing of fungicides had not been dealt with. Stromberg immediately met this challenge. In addition, David E. Babineau had been hired at Warsaw to expand the integrated pest management program in soybean and small grains. Thus, a more balanced program was assured.

Small grains. - Barley and wheat were the major small grain crops in Virginia in 1980. Some oats were produced, but small acreages did not merit research attention. Rye was used in no-till corn production but was not grown very often for grain; most rye seeds were imported from the Midwest. Rye fields were seeded in the fall and sprayed in early spring with herbicides and liquid fertilizer, and planted to corn in a one-pass operation. In other cases, rye was used as a green manure prior to planting. Thus, few rye grain crops were harvested even though rye was a widely grown species. Little attention was paid to rye unless there were failures to establish a stand for winter cover. Rye is susceptible to halo blight, caused by the bacterium Pseudomonas coronafaciens, that in Virginia sometimes kills stands in which case it usually diagnosed as winter-killing. Although a vast acreage of rye is planted, most research effort is on wheat and barley.

Wheat. - Breeding wheat for resistance to powdery mildew, leaf rust, soil-borne viruses, especially wheat spindle streak mosaic virus (WSSMV), and stem rust was the principle effort in the Hooper Era. Three high yielding, high quality cultivars were released in 1980 and 1981 and they entered the commercial market between 1982 and 1984. Through the selection and testing processes in the '70's they remained resistant to leaf rust and powdery mildew. Just before release, some resistances were overcome but because they sustained high yields they were released anyway. The philosophy was, "We are growing cereals for grain, not just green leaves." Thus, 'Tyler' released in 1980 was susceptible to leaf and stem rust but remained resistant to WSSMV and powdery mildew. Its resistances and yielding ability enabled it to become a leading soft red winter wheat grown from Virginia to Missouri. 'Wheeler' was also released in 1980 but its resistance was only to stem rust. It had field tolerance to powdery mildew. However, because of its high quality and grain yield it was released but it did not compete well against Tyler. It was susceptible to three diseases, powdery mildew, leaf rust, and WSSMV (Starling, Roane, Camper. 1984. Crop Sci. 24: 826-827.).

In 1981, 'Massey' wheat was released. It was resistant to powdery mildew, stem rust, WSSMV and Hessian fly but susceptible to leaf rust but again produced high grain yields of high quality (Ibid. 24: 1000.).

'Saluda' wheat was released in 1982; it offered resistance to powdery mildew and leaf rust but was susceptible to WSSMV (Ibid. 26: 200, 1986.).

Breeding wheat for resistance for powdery mildew and leaf rust proved to be very frustrating. Fungi causing both diseases could sustain themselves on the overintering wheat in mild winters. Wheat was widely grown in the South through to Florida and Alabama. The leaf rust and powdery mildew fungi developed during the winter in Florida, Alabama, and Georgia and spores were blown northward as the wheat grew. Virginia wheat was colonized in the fall by local genotypes of these fungi. If resistance only to local populations were needed, Virginia-bred cultivars may have maintained their resistances but against newly evolved and established fungus genotypes that blew in from the South, resistance soon failed. Thus, the objective of breeding disease resistant cultivars seemed useless as resistance to two primary diseases was ephemeral. Even so some top quality, high-yielding cultivars were produced.

On the other hand, glume blotch (Stagonospora nodorum) defoliated wheat and caused a head blight that was difficult to deal with. Rows of beautiful plants often produced only chaffy grain but because S. nodorum was forever present; by selecting for a grain yield and quality, resistance to it may have been serendipitously achieved.

Since powdery mildew was so difficult to control through resistance, attempts were made to find economical chemical controls. David Babineau initiated some studies on a rented farm near the Warsaw station. He was soon joined by Erik Stromberg. This was a great relief to Roane who at the time was being pressured by growers to develop spray programs for control of small grain diseases. Roane was not trained in the techniques of chemical disease control and did not wish to relinquish time from the genetics and breeding programs to become involved near the end of his career. Thus, the arrival of Babineau and Stromberg was very timely. The production of wheat and barley was about to undergo some technological changes; chemical disease control would be an integral part of this change. Two research factors would contribute. The availability of systemic fungicides (fungicides which are absorbed and translocated making the host resistant) and the intensive management approach to wheat production were topics of investigation during The Hooper Era.

In the intensive management approach, seeding rates, drill width spacing, fertilization, irrigation and pesticides were maximized. The use of protectant and systemic fungicides was practiced. Thus, experiments with protectant and systemic fungicides were initiated. Benomyl and Bayleton were tested as systemics for control of powdery mildew; Bayleton proved to be superior. An interesting sidelight, when powdery mildew was controlled on mildew susceptible 'Blueboy' in 1981, a big increase in yield was recorded, but when applied to 'Tyler' a mildew resistant cultivar, yield was similar for sprayed and unsprayed plots (Babineau, Pl. Protection Newsl., Dept. of Pl. Path., Physiol, & Weed Sci. 2(5), 1982). Stromberg and Babineau collaborated in 1982 to test additional chemicals in large blocks on the farm of Clarence Fitchett in Accomack Co. on Eastern Shore. 'McNair 1002' was the farmer's choice of wheat. Bayleton was again the best chemical. It could be recommended thereafter for powdery mildew control on wheat being grown for seed but not for feed or milling (Stromberg and Babineau, Pl. Prot. Newsl. 2 (3), 1982). It was labeled for powdery mildew of cereals about 1984.

In 1983, Stromberg and Babineau reported wheat powdery mildew to be heavy in early spring and recommended the use of fungicides. They also reported leaf rust to have overwintered on high levels and expected heavy losses because the widely grown cultivars, Massey, Wheeler, and McNair 1003, were very susceptible (Pl. Prot. Newsl. 2 (3), 2 (7). 1983.). No recommendations for powdery mildew and leaf rust control were given in the 1983 Virginia Pest Control Guide, (Va. Coop. Ext. Ser. Publ. 456-001, Rev. Jan 1983).

Gnanambikai Jeyandran, a native of Sri Lanka, completed an M. S. program in 1984, major in Agronomy, and defended her thesis entitled "Inheritance of reaction to Erysiphe gramimis DC. F. sp. tritici in wheat." She investigated cultivars that were digenic and had genes at the Pm, and Pm3 loci.

It is surprising how many Agronomy majors chose inheritance of resistance to pathogens for their thesis or dissertation topics. A chronological listing of those related to small grains follows:

Chen, Kuo-Chun. 1958. Inheritance of and gene loci for resistance to race 9 of Erysiphe graminis hordei El. Marchal in barley. M. S. Thesis.

Chi, Kuo-Ruey. 1962. Inheritance of resistance to Rhynchosporium secalis (Oud.) J. J. Davis in barley. M. S. Thesis.

Pineda, Carlos R. 1962. Inheritance of resistance to Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordci Em. Marchal race 9 in certain varieties of barley and relationship of the genes for resistance to those previously reported in other varieties. M. S. Thesis.

McDaniel, Milton E. 1965. The use of reciprocal translocation stocks in locating genes conditioning resistance to race 4 of Puccinia hordei Otth and certain other characters in barley. Ph. D. Dissertation.

T. M. Starling was the advisor for each of these students. Only the data from K.-R. Chi's thesis were ever published (Starling ,Roane, and Chi. 1971. Inheritance of reaction to Rhynchosporium secalis in winter barley cultivars. Pp. 513-519. In Barley Genetics II. Proc. of 2nd Internat Barley Genet. Symp. Wash. State Univ. Press. 622pp.)

A summary of recommended seed treatment products for wheat and other small grain cereals was published annually in the Virginia Pest Control Guide (Va. Coop. Ext. Ser. Publ. 456-001.).

Barley. In barley, emphasis was on breeding cultivars with resistance to leaf rust, powdery mildew, scald, and barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV). Through the years, durable resistance had been achieved by utilizing powdery mildew and leaf rust resistance found in 'Wong' and 'Cebada Capa,' respectively. Resistance to scald was somewhat ephemeral, there being periodic changes in the virulence of Rhynchosporium secalis. Slow progress was being made to incorporate BYDV resistance. In 1982, 'Sussex' barley was released. It incorporated resistance to powdery mildew and scald, and moderate resistance to BYDV and net blotch. Sussex was the first Virginia cultivar with a degree of resistance to BYDV. Four cultivars were tapped for resistance to BYDV, namely, C. I. nos. 9623, 9658, and 9708, and BYVD-resistant 'Atlas.' Sussex was selected from a mixture of germplasm in which a plant carried resistance from one of these four cultivars. It is not known which source was in Sussex but it is suspected that all have the same allele.

Barley stripe, caused by Helminthosporium gramineum (now Drechslera graminea) had become a problem in Virginia's certified seed production program in the '70's (Foy Era). Formerly, the disease was controlled by treating seed with mercury compounds but because mercury-treated grain had gotten into some food chains, licenses to manufacture mercury seed treatment compounds were cancelled by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration. Later, all labels permitting their use were cancelled. Thereafter, a rise in stripe incidence was observed and researchers sought suitable stripe-controlling materials (Kline and Roane, Pl. Dis. Reptr. 56: 183-185, 1972. Willmott, M. S. Thesis, V. P. I. & S. U., 1981.). The product carboxin (5, 6-dihydro-2-methyl-N-phenyl-1, 4-oxathiin-3- carboxamide), sold as Vitavax, was found to depress the prevalence of stripe, although its target diseases were smuts. In combination with thiram or mancozeb, Vitavax virtually eliminated stripe. The combination of Vitavox and thiram was commercially available and was used to bring stripe under control in the production of certified barley seed (Roane & Starling & Willmott, 1981 Barley Newsl 25: 42-44.)

Graduate student James D. Willmott, III studied the possible enhancement of seed treatment fungicides by using various solvents to infuse the chemicals into the seed. Surprisingly, none of the chemicals was enhanced but stripe was eliminated from all seed lots where ethanol was the solvent (Willmott, M. S. Thesis V.P.I. & S.U., 1981.). The experiment was repeated and ethanol did not work. The year-to-year discrepancy could not be explained (Roane, Starling, & Willmott, 1982.). All the stripe control studies were supported by grant funds from the Virginia Agricultural Foundation.

Note: Vitavax was never labeled for barley stripe control; therefore, to use it legally one had to target loose and covered smuts, thereby controlling stripe.

For over two decades, Roane and T. M. Starling, the small grains breeder at V.P.I. & S.U., had studied the inheritance of reaction to Puccinia hordei, the barley leaf rust fungus. In 1982, James R. Larkins completed the requirements for the Ph. D. in plant breeding. His dissertation was entitled, "Location of genes conditioning resistance of barley to leaf rust (Puccinia hordei Otth)." Larkins found loose linkage between Pa and gs5 (glossy sheath 5, a marker for chromosome 2L). By primary trisomic analysis, Pa7 was assigned to chromosome 3 but there was evidence of linkage between Pa7 and chromosome 3 markers gs5 and als (absent lower laterals), uz (semi-brachytic), and yst2 (yellow streak2). He also concluded that Pa3 is located on chromosome 1. Roane had worked on linkage of several Pa genes for about 2 decades but could find no linkages with markers for all 14 chromosome arms. It has amazed workers that a species with only 7 chromosomes has been such a difficult subject for linkage studies with Pa genes (1989 Barley Newsl. 33: 190-192, 1990).

Each year, Starling, Roane, et al., prepared a publication, "Performance of Small Grain Varieties Evaluated in Virginia in 19XX." Notes on diseases were included whenever there was sufficient disease to make readings. Usually there were notes from Blacksburg, Warsaw, Holland and Painter and sometimes from Blackstone and Orange. These notes and greenhouse data provided the confidence to make recommendations of disease-resistant cultivars and also provided evidence when new pathogen races invaded the region.

Corn. - From 1947 to 1979, Roane had cooperated with the corn breeder, Agronomist Clarence F. Genter, in the development of disease-resistant corn inbred lines and hybrids. Early, the program was directed toward stalk rot and leaf blight resistance. A number of inbred lines were released and several became widely used in the corn seed industry. When the disease maize dwarf mosaic (MDM) was recognized in 1965 as a serious problem to corn production, it became the principal target of the breeding program. As the breeding of MDM-resistant varieties progressed, interest in the genetic analysis of resistance developed. Analysis of several lines was attempted but best results were obtained only from a study of inbred line Oh7B.

During the study, results were facilitated by artificial inoculation in Montgomery Co. where natural infection was very rare. Only symptoms of MDM were expressed; no maize chlorotic dwarf (MCD) occurred. In johnsgrass-infested areas, MDMV and MCDV co-existed and symptoms of MCD interfered with expression of MDM. Thus, MDM genetic work in the field had to be conducted in a johnsgrass-free area.

In studying the effects of MDMV corn, it was soon realized that the scale developed for scoring virus diseases in corn under conditions of natural infection was unsuitable. A new scale was developed and published (Roane, Tolin, and Genter. Phytopathology 73: 845-850, 1983.). In genetic studies subsequent to the development of this scale, monogenic dominance was found in inbred lines B68, Oh1EP, Oh7B, and Va85 with all four having a gene at a common locus. Inbred line T8 was also studied in the same manner but no explanation was found for its behavior. As a line, T8 was variable in its behavior but by selfing and selection stable lines of T8 could not be isolated (Proc. Am. Phytopath. Soc. 4: 140, 1977; Phytopathology 73: 845-859, 1983; 73: 968, 1983.).

Although Genter bred the material for the Oh7B study, he resigned in 1979 to take a position with McNair Seed Company at Laurinburg, N. C. Harold S. Aycock was named Assistant Professor of Agronomy and Corn Breeder in 1979; he showed a keen interest in studying the inheritance resistance to MDMV in the next four years. With him, Roane and Tolin initiated a linkage study of the gene in Oh7B.

Aycock and Roane continued evaluating inbred lines and hybrid varieties for reaction to viruses under conditions of natural infection on the farm of Cliff Wood at Wingina, Nelson Co. Cooperation with Wood had started about 1965. Results obtained at Wingina were included in the publication "Virginia Corn Performance Trials in 19XX," V. P. I. & S. U. Dept. of Agron. Res. Rept. XXX."

During the Couch Era, 1965-1974, gray leaf spot, (GLS) caused by Cercospora zeae-maydis had graduated from a minor disease in mountain counties to a major diseases throughout the state. This change was brought about by the spread of no-till corn farming. Erik Stromberg, from the time of his appointment in 1981, took interest in reducing the impact of GLS on corn production. During the Hooper Era, Stromberg undertook this work as an Extension Project but supplemented it with funds granted from the Virginia Corn Commission. In the 1984 Comprehensive Review he reported that he had, "been able to identify adapted hybrids able to produced higher yields under GLS pressure." The test plots were on farms west of Wytheville and near Mt. Jackson in Shenandoah Co. Scores for GLS and yields under GLS pressure were published in the Plant Protection Newsletter a Departmental publication that was sent to all county Extension offices.

Corn seed treatment and nematicide recommendations for corn were listed annually in the Virginia Pest Control Guide (Va. Coop. Ext. Ser. Publ. 456-001.).

Forest Pathology

"The total land area in the state comprised of commercial forests is 15,972,800 acres (63%). Manufacture of forest products is Virginia's largest manufacturing industry. Total number of employees is in excess of 65,000 with a payroll of $700 million annually. The value added by manufacturers exceeds two billion dollars. In 1978, landowners received $90 million for stumpage. With a serious shortage in pine timber production expected by 2000, any reduction in the impact of diseases on forest production will be important. Millions of dollars are lost each year due to diseases. Problems of major concern in Virginia include annosus root rot, white pine root disease, little-leaf disease, rust and canker diseases, oak decline, and declines due to the interactions of root diseases, air pollutants, insects, and site conditions. The most important forest tree disease in Virginia is annosus root rot which causes growth loss and mortality, and predisposes trees to bark beetle attack. Losses due to annosus root rot are estimated in excess of $1,500,000 annually. Therefore, with an increase in intensively managed forest lands, reducing the impact of forest tree diseases on forest production and utilization represents an important goal." This quote is taken from the section on forestry in the 1984 Comprehensive Review, p. 291.

Annosus root rot, caused by Heterobasidion annosum, was considered the most destructive forest tree disease of the Hooper Era. It was particularly destructive to loblolly pine, Pinus taeda, in the Coastal Plain and Southern Piedmont. Although loblolly pine was native to southeastern Virginia, it was used extensively in reforestation and, consequently, was grown in large plantations that were owned or manged by the forest products industry. Samuel Alexander developed a project to study the incidence and impact of H. annosum on loblolly pine strands and to develop a system of management to reduce the impact of the fungus.

Assessing damage from forest tree root rotting diseases is a laborious task. Tree roots must be excavated and roots assayed for infections, a realistic estimate of percentage of infection is determined, and an association of infection extent with radial growth is established. An association between annosus root rot (annosus is from the earlier fungus name Fomes annosus) and subsequent southern pine beetle infestations had already been established. As annosus root rot of a tree intensified, susceptibility to beetles increase; thus, beetle infestations became somewhat of an indicator of the extent of annosus root rot. In addition, it had been found that sites of sandy soils with low water tables were high hazard sites. Alexander used statistical procedures to develop models for predicting losses from annosus root rot.

The arduous task of determining disease incidence and severity of annosus root rot is a destructive procedure. T. M. Kurdyla, in an M. S. thesis project, sought a less arduous, less destructive means of measuring incidence and severity in thinned loblolly plantations. The parameters were established from 190 excavated trees. Stem diameter, radial growth, live crown growth, and soil-root samples were used, after multiple regresion analysis, to construct equations (= models) utilizing two, three, or four of the parameters. Kurdyla claimed his models predicted root colonization within 10% of actual colonization as determined by root excavation {Kurdyla, T.M. 1983. Predicting the colonization of Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. in thinned loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations on high hazard sites. M.S. Thesis.V.P.I. & S.U.}

In the Virginia Pest Control Guide for 1983 (Va. Coop. Ext. Service Publ. 456-001) there was no reference to annosus root rot, but there was a U.S.D.A. Forestry Bulletin SA-FB/P, 1984 prepared by Alexander and R. L. Anderson, Supervisory Plant Pathologist at the U.S.D.A. Forest Service Office, Asheville, N.C., entitled, "How To Identify Annosus Root Rot and What To Do ABout It," in which a key is diagrammed for the various management options. The diagram was an update from one originally published in 1981. Alexander contributed greatly to it's refinement. It is presented on an accompanying page. Some of the information on loblolly pine had been the result of R. S. Webb's dissertation project executed under the supervision of Alexander and Skelly {R.S. Webb, The incidence and severity of Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) unthinned plantations and seed orchards. Ph. D. Diss., V.P.I. & S.U. 1980. See, also, Phytopathology 71:479-481, 661-662. 1981.}.

The production and marketing of Christmas trees is a major industry in Virginia. Three species of forest trees constitute the bulk of production: white pine, Scotch pine, and Fraser fir. Therefore, Christmas tree diseases seem to fall in the province of forest pathology. In any case, S. A. Alexander, forest pathologist, assumed responsibility for studying them.

Dying of eastern white pine in Christmas tree plantations had been reported by Alexander at several locations in Virginia (Va. Coop. Ext. Serv. Publ. PMG 503, 1980.). It was assumed that Verticicladiella procera was the cause of the dying, but pathogenicity tests had not been conducted with V. procera isolated from dead or dying Christmas trees. Ann Lackner, in an M. S. thesis project was the first to apply Koch's postulates to this Christmas tree disease (A. L. Lackner, M. S. Thesis, V.P.I. & S.U., 1981; Lackner and Alexander, Plant Dis. 66:211-212, 1982.). Lackner and Alexander later reported an association of bark beetles and weevils with diseased trees. Katherine J. Lewis, in her M. S. thesis project, concluded that weevils rather than bark beetles were the primary vectors of V. procera and that the fungus probably invades roots from their feeding tunnels (K. J. Lewis, M. S. thesis, V.P.I. & S.U., 1985.). Lewis further established the V. procera propagules in artificially infested soil were unable to infect roots, thus affirming the insert vector hypothesis (Lewis and Alexander, Phytopathology 75:1337, 1985.). W. Elliott Horner further affirmed this hypothesis by showing the root collar zone is the point of initial colonization and insects facilitate it (W. E. Horner, Ph. D. Diss., V.P.I. & S.U., 1985.).

The thesis and dissertation experiments of Lewis and Horner, respectively, were executed in the Hooper Era, though not filed until 1985. Alexander chaired the student's committees. Sometime after Lewis and Horner graduated, Alexander prepared a handout, unnumbered, undated, incorporating inferences from the student's findings. The use of the insecticide Lindane was recommended for keeping insects from bringing in V. procera, or for preventing it's spread once it occurred in a plantation.

Only one thesis on Christmas tree pathology was completed during the Hooper Era: Lackner, A. L., 1981. Incidence and pathogenicity of Verticicladiella procera Kendrick on pines in Virginia. M. S. Thesis. V.P.I. & S.U.

One dictionary defines a forest as a growth of trees and undershrubs convering a large area. Appalachian forests must have been a magnificent sight when the American chestnut was a towering component of the canopy. Although the tree remains as a persistent member of the flora, it's presence is so insignificant that it is often overlooked. However, several people working in Virginia in cooperation with scientists in other states have begun to record increments of progress toward restoring chestnut to it's former status. During the Hooper Era, chestnut research in Virginia was led by Gary Griffin and his students Fred Hebard and Rusty Wendt; and Adjunct Professor Martha Roane, all of Blacksburg; T. A. Dierauf of the Virginia Division of Forestry of Charlottesville; and John Elkins, a Professor of Chemistry at Concord College, Athens, West Virginia who was, also, an Adjunct Professor in Plant Pathology. Lucille Griffin, wife of Gary Griffin, contributed greatly to the American chestnut research by translating European publications.

An assembly of Experiment Station and U.S.D.A. Forest Service scientists and perhaps other interested persons participated in an American chestnut Symposium at West Virginia University in 1978 (Proc. of the Amer. Chestnut Symp., Jan. 4-5, 1975, W. L. MacDonald, F. C. Cech, J. Luchok and H. C. Smith, eds. W. Va. Univ., Books, Morgantown.). A regional project was formed (Reg. Proj. NE - 140) involving scientists interested in "Biological improvement of chestnut (Castenea sp.)." In Virginia, G. J. Griffin, J. R. Elkins, M. K. Roane, and R. J. Stipes were the leaders. The document for the following statement is taken from the 1984 Comprehensive Review of the Department: "The objectives of the contributing Virginia project were: (a) to evaluate the effect of hypovirulence on the host-parasite relations of the chestnut blight fungus, Endothia parasitica, (b) to evaluate other hosts and the role of vectors in the production and dissemination of hypovirulent inoculum, (c) to select and breed for resistance to E. parasitica, (d) to evaluate selections or progeny for tolerance to hypovirulent strains and (e) to investigate the taxonomic relationship, geographic extent and host range of E. parasitica and E. radicalis." Results will be presented later.

A group of scientists assembled at Morgantown again in 1982 to discuss progress in chestnut research (Proc. of the U.S.D.A. Forest Serv. Amer. Chestnut Cooperator's Meeting, Morgantown, W. Va., Jan. 5 - 7, 1982, H. C. Smith and W. L. MacDonald, eds., W. Va. Univ. Books, Morgantown, W.Va.). It was obvious from the various presentations that there was contageous enthusiasm and optimism among the participants. Even more, there was determination that some day chestnut would once again be a major component of the forest. Virginia scientists presented four papers. F. V. Hebard, G. J. Griffin, and J. R. Elkins presented a summary of their research on biology of hypovirulent and virulent isolates of Endothia parasitica on blight susceptible and resistant chestnut trees (Ibid. pp. 49 - 63). In essence, this was a condensed version of Hebard's Ph. D. dissertation. They reported finding a low level of resistance in a large surviving tree in Floyd Co. They also demonstrated that surviving trees were colonized by hypovirulent strains of E. parasitica. Thus, both low resistance and hypovirulent infections seemed necessary for large-tree survival (Phytopathology 71:224. 1981; 73:822, 1084-92. 1983; 74:140-149, 804. 1984.).

Rusty Wendt submitted an M. S. thesis in which he described the presence and frequency of hypovirulent strains of E. parasitica in chestnut stump sprouts occurring in Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia. (R. W. Wendt M. S. thesis, V.P.I. & S.U., 1981.). He isolated 198 cultures of E. parasitica and tested them for pathogenicity. Thereupon, he divided the isolates as 96% virulent, 2.5% hypovirulent, and 1.5% intermediate. Strangely, hypovirulent and intermediate forms were isolated only from Virginia; additionally, they occurred more frequently in clear-cut than in mature forest sites.

Wendt, J. Weidhaas, Griffin, and Elkins found that mites associated with blight cankers were carriers of E. parasitica; 34.6% of the mites were contaminated, but it was not shown in what form, conidia or mycelium. Furthermore, it was not established that mites were effective vectors (Plant Dis. 67: 757-758, 1983.).

Richard Jaynes of the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station and T. A. Dierauf of the Virginia Division of Forestry described at the 1982 Morgantown meeting the status of chestnut breeding at Lesesne State Forest in Nelson Co., Virginia (Proc. U.S.D.A. Forest Service Amer. Chestnut Coop. Meeting, Morgantown, W. Va., Jan. 5 - 7, 1982, H. C. Smith & W. L. MacDonald, eds. pp. 68-73.). Of 12,000 hybrid chestnut seedlings planted 1969 - 1975, only 23 trees had survived selection for form and blight resistance in 1981. None of these trees meet the standards required for reforestation, but by using them as a germplasm pool for further breeding, the ultimate goal may be achieved some day.

Theses and dissertations on chestnut submitted during the Hooper Era:

Hebard, F. V. 1982. Biology of virulent and hypovirulent Endothia parasitica on American chestnut (Castanea dentata). Ph. D. Diss. V.P.I. & S.U.

Wendt, R. W. 1981. Presence of hypovirulent Endothia parasitica (Murr.)

P. J. & H. W. And. in the general population of American chestnut, Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh, stump sprouts. M. S. thesis. V.P.I. & S. U.

Additional research on forest trees is reported in the section on air pollution.

Vegetable Pathology

The annual average farm gate value of vegetables in Virginia was estimated at $47,000,000. This value was calculated at $1,000.00 per acre of vegetables produced. there were approximately 33,500A of vegetables grown on the Eastern Shore (Accomac and Northampton counties). Of this acreage there were 14,000A of Irish potatoes. The remainder is devoted to beans, cucumbers, peppers, squash, strawberries, and crops enumerated below.

Production of vegetables in other regions of Virginia include cabbage 1500A, cantaloupe 400A, broccoli 300A, tomatoes 300A. This acreage is concentrated in Hanover, Halifax, Mecklenberg, Carroll, and Patrick Counties. The once thriving truck cropping industry in the Norfolk area had been lost to housing and industrial development. The Virginia Truck Experiment Station staff found it necessary to devote the most time to ornamental and landscape plants. The station had been renamed the Virginia Truck and Ornamentals Research Station about 1970. Vegetable research and extension was gradually concentrated at the Painter sub-station where in 1981, the plant pathologist, R. E. Baldwin, was named Scientist-in-Charge.

During the Hooper Era, research efforts at Blacksburg were conducted by R. C. Lambe and G. H. Lacy. They concentrated on clubroot and powdery mildew of cucurbits, and late blight of tomato. All other research on vegetable diseases was conducted by Baldwin at Painter. Extension programs at V.P.I. & S.U. were developed by Lambe to transmit research results to vegetable growers in the state.

The research by Baldwin was the easiest to track because he frequently summarized his results and published recommendations in the Vegetable Growers News (VGN), a monthly publication issued by the Virginia Truck and Ornamentals Research Station. Both the Virginia Beach and Painter staffs participated. During the Hooper Era, Baldwin published 25 articles on vegetable pathology in VGN. In each article he described annual experiments listing crops and diseases considered, products and procedures tested, results obtained, and advice to growers. Virtually all important vegetable crops grown in Eastern Virginia were considered. Growers in the region depended heavily on articles in VGN for the latest information. The needs of growers came first; there was virtually no basic research.

At the Painter and Virginia Beach stations, the staff remained in close contact with growers by issuing disease forecasts and presticide application alerts on radio, TV, and in newspapers. Although records for these types of operations are difficult to document, they were vital functions that tightly bound growers to the station staff. The nature of the situation made it impossible to define clearly Research and Extension.

Plasmodiophora brassicae was the subject of M. S. and Ph. D. projects at Blacksburg in the Hooper Era. Clubroot of cabbage had been a problem for growers in Patrick, Carroll, Wythe, and Smyth Counties for many years. Our first plant pathologist, H. E. Reed, had studied it and published on it in 1911 (Va. Agric., Exp. Sta. Bul. 191, 1911.). No further studies were made until 1974 when Lambe and McCart found that pentachloronitrobenzene (Terraclor) used in conjunction with hydrated lime suppressed clubroot in infested fields. Hutter, a graduate student, speculated in 1978 that water sources were contaminated with P. brassicae and that use of this water overwhelmed efforts to control the disease and spread it to new fields (Hutter, M.D. M. S. Proj. and Rept. V.P.I. & S.U. 1978.). L. E. Datnoff, another student, confirmed the contaminated water hypothesis when he produced clubroot on cabbage by growing them in pond sediment from infested areas (Datnoff, M. S. Thesis, V.P.I. & S.U. 1981.). He could free infested water by the addition of NaOCi, not a useful field procedure. T. K. Kroll undertook a further study and found that Terraclor or Benlate controlled clubroot when P. brassicae resting spore population was 105 spores/g of soil, but not 107/g. (Kroll, Ph. D. Diss., V.P.I. & S.U., 1983.). The combination of liming to pH 7.0 and applying Terraclor was the recommentation in 1984 for clubroot control.

Kroll studied the nature of resistance P. brassicae in radishes and found resistance was not expressed until after the pathogen penetrated root hairs. Cabbage cultivars resistant in Oregon were susceptible in Virginia, but a broccoli cultivar was resistant in both states. Kroll's studies were carried out with Lacy and Moore as his advisors. Lambe, as a member of the committees of all three students, provided continuity for orientating all of them to the clubroot problem.

Reports on testing pesticides for use on vegetable crops may be found throughout the Hooper Era in Fungicide and Nematicide Tests, volumes 36:56-57, 1981; 37:64; 67, 82-83, 166, 1982; 38:94-95, 107, 109, 1983; 39:60-61, 73-74, 79-81, 84, 1984; 40: 83-85, 1985. (Note: vol. 40 contains reports on 1984 experiments.).

Pathology of Ornamental Plants

It is convenient to divide ornamental plants into nursery crops, landscape plants, and turfgrass. Landscape plants may include trees, shrubs, and herbal plants. For convenience of specialized study, turfgrasses and trees are separated from all other ornamentals. During the Hooper Era, H. B. Couch specialized in turfgrass pathology, R. J. Stipes in landscape tree pathology, and W. H. Wills and R. C. Lambs addressed other woody ornamental and herbaceous plant diseases. G. H. Lacy advised students in the study of some herbaceous plant diseases. L. D. Moore and A.B.A.M. Baudoin were involved in some special studies. According to the 1984 Comprehensive Review, "The nursery crop industry in Virginia has an estimated annual value of $52,500,000. Certain diseases are known to limit the quality and quantity of production of azaleas, rhododendron, Japanese holly and junipers. Increasing land costs and increased demand for nursery crops have stimulated an expansion of production in containers in Virginia. This growth has been accompanied by severe outbreaks of foliar and root rot diseases." Also, "landscape trees around home, along highways, in cemeteries, parks, and historic shrines, on campuses and grounds of industrial complexes are worth millions of dollars in aesthetic value, as screens for noise abatement, privacy, shade providers, as historic and sentimental landmarks, as wood providers, and for other amenity values. The importance of diseases of landscape trees in Virginia has increased with the extended trends toward urbanization, population growth, and the interest in private and federal landscaping. problems associated with increased water, air and noise pollution increase the need to preserve and develop open spaces for use by the general public. Virginia will need a more thorough knowledge of trees, their diseases and management, as well as effective disease control methods."

Turfgrass pathology will be treated in the section following.

Wills and Lambe cooperated in projects on various diseases of woody ornamentals. in response to grower needs, they investigated the etiology and control of black root rot of Japanese holly and root and stem diseases of dogwood, azalea, and rhododendron. Graduate student, S. Kularatne (from Sri Lanka), with Wills as his advisor, studied the efficacy of Aliette®, Subdue®, Truban®, and the fungus, Mortiella alpina (as a biologic control agent), for control of the azalea root rot fungus Phytophthora cinnamomi. He, also, tested several mulching media interacting with the fungus and fungicides. The most significant conclusion was that Subdue and Aliette controlled root rot and Subdue, but not Aliette, suppressed P. cinnamomi propagule production.

Robert Wick for his dissertation project studied the histopathology of Japanese holly black root rot caused by Thielaviopsis basicola. He presented many photomicrographs and interpretations of them. In response to a question he raised about resistance, he concluded mycorrhizae affected resistance either slightly, or not at all. Moore was his advisor.

Lambe and Wills described a "Stem canker of unknown origin of flowering dogwood in Virginia." (J. Sou. Nurserymen's Assn. 7:1-7; and under different titles in Ornamental South 3:16-18; Plant Propagators Soc. Comb. Proc 1980, 30:526-529; 1981.). They reported that dieback of rhododendron was caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea. In preliminary experiments, benomyl was found to control it (1984 Comprehensive Rev. :254.).

Wills and Lambe collaborated to produce numerous articles on diseases of nursery stock in the popular press.

Under the project title of "Biology and control of diseases of ornamental plants and landscape trees", Lambe and Stipes combined to make studies whose objectives were narrower than signified by the project title; namely, to test fungicides in the greenhouse and field against soil-borne and foliar pathogens. No publications were issued and results seemed only preliminary. Lambe also conducted a project "Evaluation of new fungicides and new methods of application to nursery crops. The procedures were similar to those in the preceding project, but only new fungicides would be tested in an effort to determine their efficacy and phototoxicity.

Baudoin and Lambe cooperated to study the epidemiology of Entomosporium leaf spot of photinia. Optimum conditions for infection were 20° C and 9 or more hours of wetness. Only young, expanding leaves were susceptible. No control measures were reported (Phytopathology 74:822, 1984). In another publication, Daconil 2787 foliar applied and Benlate foliar and soil applied were shown to reduce disease (Fungicide and Nematicide Tests 39:195, 1984). Jessie Micales, a graduate student in the Department, executed the trials under Lambe's direction.

In 1982, R. K. Jones, Extension Plant Pathologist at North Carolina State University, and Lambe collaborated to edit N. C. State Pub. A6-286, "Diseases of Woody Ornamentals and Their Control in Commercial Nurseries" (1982). Lambe was author or co-author of seven sections.

Cynthia Berg prepared a report (Bacterial soft rot of iris, M. S. Proj. & Rept., Non-thesis, V.P.I. & S.U. 1981.) with G. H. Lacy as her advisor. She gave a detailed description of most iris pests and diseases. For her project, she compared Erwinia carotovora with E. chrysanthemi, both causes of iris soft rot. Differences between species were very slight.

Martha Pizano Salazar, also working with Lacy, produced a report (Bacterial canker of poinsettia M.S. Proj. & Rept., Non-thesis, V.P.I. & S.U., 1983.) in which she demonstrated cuttings from California were contaminated with Corynebacterium flaccumfaciens pv. poinsettia and C. f. pv. flaccumfaciens, but were symptomless. Bacteria spread from these cuttings to other poinsettia plants and caused cankers.

Stipes was a co-producer of the most significant publication on ornamental diseases in the Hooper Era. With Richard Campana, of the University of Maine, a "Compendium of Elm Diseases" was published in 1981 by the American Phytopathological Society (APS). In addition to being co-editor, Stipes was either author or co-author of 10 disease sections. The entire section on insects and mites was prepared by John Weidhaas, Jr., an Extension Entomologist at V.P.I. & S.U. The Elm Compendium pioneered the publication by APS of compendia on landscape/horticultural (= non-field crop) topics. Previously, compendium subjects were agronomic crops.

A second significant effort, by weight and volume, was graduate student M. J. Weaver's dissertation entitled, "The etiology of the decline of Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) on Virginia landscapes: A survey of stress factors," Ph. D. dissertation, V.P.I. & S.U. 1981, 270 pp. Weaver analyzed and correlated various factors, mostly edaphic, leading to decline. Soil compaction was the most frequent contributing factor. During his survey, Weaver discovered the pinewood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) associated with declining white pine in Rockbridge County, February 1980. The nematode had been reported previously from the Midwest where Scots pine was most severely affected. Weaver later found it in Henrico and Botetourt Cos. (Phytopathology 71;722, 1981.).

During the Hooper Era, Stipes, his colleagues, and student advisees conducted experiments on fungicidal movement in elm and elm soils, and physiochemical taxonomy of Endothia spp. Results appeared mostly as abstracts of papers presented at APS and Virginia Academy of Science meetings (Phytopathology 71:766, 1981; 73:964; 1983; Va. J. Sci. 32;105, 1981; 33;125, 128, 1982; 34;140, 1983.). There were, also, papers on philosophy of plant pathology and history of elm diseases (Va. J. Sci. 32;104, 105, 1981; 34:143, 1983.).

In his Extension program, Stipes emphasized education of field (County Agents) personnel in landscape tree disease identification and control. Several popular press articles were published. Sections were prepared for the two manuals "Chemical control of Insects, Plant Diseases, and Weeds in Virginia," Va. Coop. Ext. Ser. Pub. 456-001, 1982 (Revised annually) and "Pest Management Guide for Home Grounds and Gardens," Va. Coop. Ext. Pub. 456-002, 1984. Many personal contacts were made through workshops, in-service training sessions, Master Gardener's programs, agricultural and horticultural conferences, and field forays.

Turfgrass Pathology

The following paragraphs occur in the 1984 Comprehensive Review of the Department. "According to a survey conducted by the Virginia Department of Agriculture in 1982, the State had 826,120 acres of land in maintained turfgrass. The annual expenditure for maintenance of these areas was estimated at $101,500,000. In addition to the many functional roles these grass stands serve (e.g., the absorption of heat, noise and air pollutants, the control of dust and mud, increases the economic value of property, and use in recreation facilities), the cultivation of turfgrass in Virginia is the basis for a significant portion of it's annual business revenue. As such, then, turfgrass culture is an important source of employment for Virginia's work force, and also contributes materially to the State's sales and income tax revenue.

Diseases and weeds rank among the more important of the factors that significantly reduce the quality and performance levels of cultivated turftrass. The estimated expenditure in Virginia in 1982 for weed and disease control in turfgrass was approximately $1,000,000. A strong, well balanced program in turfgrass disease and weed control, then, is important to the stable and continued growth of this agricultural industry in Virginia."

Turfgrass pathology was the province of H. B. Counch in the Hooper Era. If one were to assess his accomplishments in the Era from his publication, record, one would conclude he was on vacation from research. Most of his publications were popular and trade magazine articles and two chapters in the book, "Advances in Turfgrass Pathology," 1981. Actually, Couch was very busy preparing a new book, "Diseases of Turfgrasses" 3rd ed. Although it was not published until 1995, the third edition was not like the first and second editions. It was entirely new; therefore, it was his principal effort for over a decade. For this reason, his reasearch publications were few.

Despite the foregoing statements, Couch remained loyal to Golf Course Superintendants Association of America, the U.S. Golf Association midwest Turfgrass Association, and related organizations for whom he frequently conducted workshops, gave seminars, and otherwise provided them with up-to-date information on turf fungicides. He was, also, an entertaining speaker, therefore, popular speaker.

In the 1984 Comprehensive Review, Couch described in great detail (3 pages) how he would study the infection process and colonization of Pon pratense, P. annua, and Agrostis palustris or Kentucky bluegrass, annual bluegrass, and creeping bentgrass, respectively, by Curvularia lunata, C. geniculata, Colletotrichum graminicola, and Alternaria tenuis. By Comprehensive Review time, he was able to report progress with the A. palustris/C. lunata study only. Heat stress and treatment with the herbicide trichloroacetic acid (TCA) enabled more frequent infection by C. lunata. Apparently, this work was done by J. J. Muchovej in his dissertation. research. (Muchovej, J. J. The nature of infection of leaves of Agrostis palustris. Ph. D. Diss. V.P.I. & S.U. Couch published nothing about this research in technical journals. It appears that the research was an extension of that reported on the Rhizoctonia/tall fescue and Pythium/bentgrass systems (Phytopathology 71:868, 765, respectively, 1981.).

Peter Schmidt conducted experiments in his M.S. thesis program on the "Influence of non-Oomycete active systemic fungicides on the severity of Pythium blight of bentgrass" (V.P.I. & S.U. thesis, 1984.). The fungicides were benomyl, thiophanate methyl, thiophanate ethyl, and triademefon.

The host/pathogen system was Agrostis palustris/Pythium aphanidermatum. Benomyl treatments tended to increase disease severity. Thiophanate ethyl and triadimafon applications tended to decrease disease severity.

Although Couch made continuous and frequent reports on specific turfgrass fungi and fungicide tests, perhaps his most significant publications to appear during the Hooper Era were in the proceedings of a turfgrass disease symposium held in Columbus, Ohio in 1979. The proceedings titled, Advances in Turfgrass Pathology (Harcourt-Brace, Javonovich, Inc., Duluth, Minn. 1981. 197 pp.) were published two years later. Under the title, "Turfgrass pathology--past, present, and future," Couch gave an interesting review of the history of turfgrass pathology, beginning with the establishment of bowling greens in the 13th century. An interesting aspect was the history of fungicides, including Bordeaux mixture, organic mercurials, dithiocarbamates, and systemics. Under a second title, "Relationship of management practices to the incidence and severity of turfgrass diseases." Couch discussed his own research and that of many others relating to environmental and management aspects of turfgrass pathology.

Although Couch was not assigned time in Extension, he participated in turfgrass Extension programs and field days and prepared a number of Extension leaflets. He prepared sections which were updated annually in the "Pest Management Guide for Lawngrass", Va. Comp. Ext. Ser. Pub. 456-004 (Rev 1982, 1983, 1984); "Pest Management Guide for Turfgrass, Ibid 456-009 (Rev. 1982, 1983, 1984.). Thus, suggestions and recommendations for maintaining healthy turfgrass were available to the public through local Extension offices.

Couch taught PlPP 6020, Principles of Plant Disease Development, a course he had installed soon after becoming Department Head in 1965. This was to be a finishing course for Ph. D. candidates. He contributed to the team-taught course, with Stipes and Wills, PlPP 4980, Diseases of Landscape Trees, Ornamentals, and Turfgrass. Outside of the University, he taught a two-day short course on identification and control of turfgrass diseases. The course is part of the educational program of the Golf Course Superintendants Association of America and is one of the requirements for certification by the Association.

It appears that Couch was adequately on top of turfgrass pathology and that the industry and public were well-served by his teachings and service.

Air Pollution

Studies on the effects of air-borne products toxic to plants in Virginia initiated during the Couch Era have been continued to-date. Forest pathologist, J. M. Skelly, was the first to become involved. He was soon joined by L. D. Moore whose specialty was physiology of plant disease. Several graduate students have contributed research. During the Hooper Era, Boris Chevone was hired in 1980 specifically to conduct research in air pollution effects on plants. Skelly resigned in April 1982 and W. E. Winner replaced him later that year.

Hooper had established the Air Pollution Laboratory as a special unit in the Department. It was staffed by Skelly (Professor), Moore (Professor), Chevone (Assistant Professor), Stanley Long (Laboratory Specialist A), a secretary, and several graduate students. Presumably, Skelly was the director, but no document naming him as such was located. When Winner was hired after Skelly's departure, his title was Assistant Professor and Director of the Air Pollution Laboratory (APL).

During the Hooper Era, research at the APL was conducted under four projects; these are enumerated below along with the major accomplishments.

State project--Effect of air pollutants on growth and yield of forest trees, ornamentals, and field crops--Skelly and Moore, leaders (terminated Sept. 30, 1982 upon Skelly's resignation).

Under the guidance of Skelly and Moore, graduate students Steve Duchelle monitored ozone concentrations of five locations along the Blue Ridge parkway and in other Appalachian Mountain areas. Major episodes were observed every year (1976-1982). Of 315 tagged whilte pines, 19 (6%) died by 1979. Approximately 4% were rated very sensitive, 75% intermediate, and 21% were tolerant. Asclepias syriaca, common milkweed, was found to be an excellent bioindicator of excessive ozone in the air (Duchelle, S. F. 1981. M.S. Thesis, V.P.I. & S.U.; Plant Disease 65:661-663, 1981; Comprehensive Rev., 1984, p. 367.).

Tobacco was also a subject of investigation in this project. That work was discussed in the Tobacco section of the Hooper Era.

Project in review--The combined effects of gaseous air pollutants and acidic rain on plant growth--Chevone, leader.

Work on this project apparently began in 1983. It was being conducted in the environmental control chambers that had been erected in a greenhouse at the APL. Ozone, sulfur dioxide, and acid rain were the variables investigated. Only preliminary results were reported in the 1984 Comprehensive Review. Both ozone and acid rain reduced growth of seedling loblolly and shortleaf pine. There was no interactive response detected. Tulip poplar interactive (additive) damage was noted in ozone-sulfur dioxide treatments (Comprehensive Rev., 1984, pp. 370-371.).

Research in two regional air pollution projects, IR-7 and NE-121, was continued from the Couch Era through the Hooper Era and into the Moore Era. In IR-7, research was directed toward the "Chemistry of atmospheric deposition; effects on agriculture, forestry, surface water, and materials." Attention was given the chemical climate of North America, the effects of atmospheric deposition on crops, forests, range and wetlands, domestic food animals, fish and wildlife, chemistry of surface and ground wates, metals, masonry stone, and other building materials. Obviously, the objectives are too broad for one program. At V.P.I. & S.U., the chemistry of precipitation was monitored and simulated rainfall conditions were used to supplement and diagnose field data and observations. Over a period of years, average composition of precipitation was determined and simulated in the APL.

Ozone in combination with rain at pH 3.0 reduced root growth of loblolly (Pinus taeda and shortleaf (P. echinata) pines. Acidity as low as pH 3.4 was detected in Virginia. At pH 4.0, commonly occurring soil bacteria, Erwinia herbicola and Pseudomonas syringae, were either unable to grow or were greatly inhibited. These studies were carried out at the Horton Center near Mountain Lake on Salt Pond Mountain in Giles Co. under the direction of W. E. Winner and B. I. Chevone (Comprehensive Rev., 1984, pp. 363-365; Air Pollut. Contr. Assoc. J. 34:355-359, 1984.).

In project NE-121, "Reducing the influence of air pollution on plant productivity in the Northeast," Moore, Chevone, and Winner were the leaders. Two objectives paralleled those of IR-7, but a third was to seek methods and materials for ameliorating the effects of air pollution. The physical nature of pollutants and their biological effects were enumerated, much as in other projects. It was pointed out that ozone increased susceptibility of Rhododendron spp. and tobacco to Phytophthora spp., and that O3 and SO2 stimulated development of anthracnose of bean (Comprehensive Rev., 1984 pp. 358-364; Canad. J. Forest Res. 12;202-209, 803-808, 1982; 13;184-187, 1983; 14:150-153, 1984; Phytopathology 73:1234-1237, 1983: J. Environ. Hort. 2;12-16, 1984.). From the results reported, there was no progress in ameliorating the effects of air pollutants. Titles of theses and dissertations concerning air pollution studies may be found in the instruction section. Authors were Duchelle, M.S., 1981; L. F. Benoit, M.S., 1981; Y.- S. Yang, Ph. D., 1981; M. J. Mahoney, Ph.D., 1982; G. S. Reddick, M.S.-N.T., 1983; O. S. Achwanya, Ph.D., 1984.

By the end of the Hooper Era, the characteristics and hazards of air pollutants were thoroughly understood, but no progress had been made to control them. In fact, as long as the burning of fossil fuels continued to accelerate, was there really any hope? Probably not with present technology.

Nematology

Soon after G. R. Hooper became head of the Department of Plant Pathology and Physiology (PlPP), he hired Alma P. Elliott to fill the vacancy in nematology created when J. A. Fox resigned. Elliott appeared to be well-trained to work in Virginia where nematode problems abounded. She had recently completed a dissertation entitled, "Ecology of Pratylenchus penetrans associated with navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) " at Michigan State University. After graduation in May, she remained at MSU and served as diagnostician in nematology. She also upgraded several Michigan Extension Service publications on nematology and prepared journal papers on her dissertation research. Hooper appointed her Assistant Professor in PlPP on October 15, 1980.

Elliott conducted research in four areas; namely tobacco, soybean/peanut, fruit, and nematode parasitism. Tobacco research was conducted under projects titled, "Variability of root-knot and cyst nematodes and their population dynamics," and "Parasitism of Heterodera glycines and Globodera solanacearum by fungi." The first project was conducted in cooperation with Dean Komm, J. J. Reilly and C. E. Grant, all located at the Blackstone station. Field studies were conducted with various nematicides and it was determined that a combination of Nemacur 3 and Furadan 4F very effectively controlled the tobacco cyst nematode, G. solanacearum. Two cultivars, Va 81 and PD4 maintained resistance to the nematode in two years of continuous tobacco. Corn and fescue in the rotation effectively reduced populations of G. solanacearum. The chemical control studies were summarized in Fungicide & Nemat. Tests 37:201, 1981; 38:15, 17, 18, 1983.

The second project was conducted primarily by Grant in a post-doctoral appointment. He isolated fungi from nematode cysts and, also, exposed fungus-free cysts to fungi isolated from cysts. Most frequently isolated from H. glycines were species of Fusarium (25%), Phialophora (12%), Verticillium (10%), Paecilomyces (9%) and Penicillium (5%). Diheterosporium and Trichoderma were isolated from cysts of both tobacco and soybean cyst nematodes. Grant found that hyphae of Phialophora, Gliocladium, Aspergillus, Paecilomyces, Verticullium, and Diheterosporium, which were isolated from cysts, could penetrate cysts in cultures (Comprehensive Rev., 1984, pp. 356-357.).

Elliott conducted research on soybean nematodes under the project entitled, "Development and improvement of nematode control practices." Co-leading the project were D.E. Babineau at Warsaw and P.M. Phipps at Suffolk. Thrusts were to determine economic thresholds of damage to soybean by nematodes, determine economic thresholds for profitable control practices, and apply the results to recommendations in the predictive nematode assay program. Financial support was received from the Virginia Soybean Commission.

Helicotylenchus dihystera commonly occurred in Essex soybean fields, but the threshold for damage was a high number, 1500-2000 per 500 cm3 of soil. In an M.S. project, J. A. Thompson studied the northern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla)/ soybean relationship. Thompson reported two generations of second stage larvae were produced in 60 days; of three cultivars, Essex, Forrest, and Lee 74, Essex was the most susceptible; the economic threshold was 50 larvae per 250 cm3 of soil at midseason; and phenamiphos (Nemacur 15G) gave optimum economic control at 2.25 kg/ha for an optimum profit of $275/ha (Thompson J. A. 1983. Biology and economics of control of Meloidogyne hapla associated with soybean. M.S. thesis, V.P.I. & S.U. 1983.).

Similar studies on Heterodera glycines were conducted by Elliott and the co-leaders. Phenamiphos controlled H. glycines at all levels of application and rotation of soybean with corn or peanuts reduced the nematode population (Comprehensive Rev., 1984; Fungicide--Nemat. Tests 37:199, 1982; 38:7,8, 1983.).

Elliott, Phipps, and Komm collaborated on an Extension plan of work titled, "Control of plant parasitic nematodes in crop production." Although it was meant to address nematode problems of both agronomic and horticultural crops, most effort was directed toward peanuts and tobacco. Using information gathered from research projects, nematode control recommendations were up-dated and a computerized procedure was developed to refine recommendations for the predictive nematode assay program (Elliott, A.P., et al. Va. Coop. Ext. Ser. Bul. 450-31, 1981; 450-032, 1982; 450-070, 1982; 450-001, 1983.).

Elliott conducted research on nematodes attacking various fruit plants under the title, "Control of plant parasitic nematodes in small fruit production." In this work she cooperated with K. Yoder of the Winchester station. Three graduate students, R. K. Niles, S. Garber, and A. Hsia, also contributed to the research. Under the guidance of Elliott and Yoder, Miles produced a voluminous M.S. thesis on, "Extraction procedures and population dynamics of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with non-bearing apple." (M.S. Thesis, V.P.I. & S.U., 1984.). The study was conducted over a two-year period, 1981-1982. Niles evaluated six extraction procedures and observed different efficiencies for different nematodes. Five genera, or species, of nematodes predominated: Hoplolaimus galeatus, Macropostonia curvatus, Pratylenchus spp., Paratylenchus spp. and Xiphinema americanum. The last named, X. americanum, is potentially the most destructive because it vectors damaging apple viruses. Populations of all species remained relatively stable throughout the sampling period.

Hsia produced a project and report entitled, "Studies on host-parasite interactions of plant-parasitic nematodes in strawberry fields of Virginia." He found Pratylenchus spp. to be most widely distributed, but found that Meloidogyne, Helicotylenchus, Tylenchorhynchus, Hoplolaimus, and Xiphinema spp. were also present. He worked out some equations to express the relationships for M. hapla and strawberry and P. penetrans and strawberry. A combination of aldicarb (=Temik 15G) and DCPA (Dacthal 75W) proved most efficient for reducing densities of nematodes in strawberry fields (Hsia, M.S. Proj. & Rept., V.P.I. & S.U. 1984.).

L. I. Miller had retired, (actually, he retired from the payroll and went on Social Security, but he came to work nearly 7 days a week), on January 1, 1980, but throughout the Hooper Era, he continued studying the morphology and interfertility of root-knot and cyst nematodes. However, from 1980 to 1988, he took a hiatus from publication. In 1988, he resumed publishing. His work will be reviewed in the Moore Era.

Virology

Diseases induced by virus and the efforts to control them by breeding virus-resistant cultivars are discussed in sections on fruit, soybean, tobacco, and cereals. Special emphasis was given to the genetics of reactions to corn and soybean viruses. S. A. Tolin conducted her research on viruses under the project entitled "Identification and characterization of viruses infecting certain crops." In addition to state funds, the work was supported by grants from the Virginia Agricultural Foundation, the U.S.D.A. Cooperative State Research Service, and the Virginia Soybean and Corn Commissions. Three dissertations and one thesis were completed under Tolin's direction during the Hooper Era; these contributed much of the basic information reported on the project.

Rosemary H. Ford was the first to complete a dissertation in virology during the Hooper Era (Comparative studies on two strains of peanut stunt virus. Characterization in vivo interaction of the gene for pathogenicity on Glycine max 'York'. Ph.D. Diss., V.P.I. & S.U., 1981.). Ford studied two strains of PSV; they were very similar, but could be distinguished by reactions on 'Kanrich' and 'York' soybean and Chenopodium quinona. Strain V-1 produced local lesions on York, but strain V-2 became systemic. PSV is a tripartite virus, components being designated RNA1, RNA2, and RNA3. Ford demonstrated RNA3 carries the coat protein gene; RNA3 with either RNA1 or -2 was required to induce symptoms in soybean.

Penny L. Hunst also completed a dissertation in virology in 1981 (Soybean mossic virus: Strains, ultrastructure, and movement. Ph.D. Diss. V.P.I. & S.U. 1981.). Hunst studied two isolates of SMV that had been collected in Virginia; she eventually classified them as strains G1 and G3. Strain G1 caused symptoms in soybean cultivars generally susceptible to SMV; G3 produced mild mosaic in generally susceptible cultivars and severe necrotic symptoms in cultivars resistant to G1. In ultrastructure, pinwheel inclusions were more prevalent with G1 than with G3 and more organized.

In 1983, David C. Bays completed a dissertation entitled, "Variability of the peanut mottle virus reaction in soybean (Glycine max)" (Ph.D. Diss. V.P.I. & S.U. 1983).

Evidence for variability of PMV in soybean had been reported previously, but no comprehensive analysis had been made of ths phenomenon. It was important to know if this variability would complicate the program of breeding soybean resistant to PMV. Bays recognized five strain groups based on symptoms expressed on selected soybean cultivars; no serological differences were detected. Pathogenicity varied among strains. None of the strains infected 'Buffalo,' 'CNS,' 'Davis,' 'Haberlandt,' 'Kwanggyo,' 'Peking', and 'Ware.' Four strains infected 'Cumberland,' three strains infected 'Virginia,' and one strain infected 'Arksoy', 'Dorman,' 'Shore,' and 'York.' From genetic studies, CNS and the Arksoy group are known to have different genes conitioning resistance to PMV. In all probability, the 5 strains could be useful in recognizing specific resistance genes.

Fiona J. Butterfield, a graduate student from England, completed an M.S. thesis in 1983 entitled, "Identification of watermelon mosaic virus in pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) in Virginia" (M.S. Thesis, V.P.I. & S.U., 1983.). Host range tests indicated WMV was the agent causing symptoms of pumpkins in Carroll Co. Micrographic and antisera studies supported the conclusion that WMV-2 was present.

Pertinent publications relative to virology are found in: Phytopathology 71:227, 859, 883; 72:708, 710-713; 73:615-619, 964, 968; 74:808 (1981-1984). The project is described in the 1984 Comprehensive Review document.

New Plant Diseases, Pathogens, and Hosts Reported 1980-1984

1980

Apple blister spot, caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. papulans, was discovered and successfully controlled by adaption of control recommendations from northern states to conditions in Virginia. This involved the use of streptomycin.

During 1996 and 1997, C. W. and M. K. Roane published lists of fungi associated with grasses in Virginia (Va. J. Sci. 47:197-224, 1996; 48:11-46, 1997). Many of the associations were new to Virginia, the eastern United States, and the entire United States in the publication "Fungi on Plants and Plant Products in the United States" (Farr, D. F. et al., Amer. Phytopathol. Soc. Press, St. Paul, Minn. 1989) can be used as an establishing reference. Listed below by years are the host-fungus associations observed during the Hooper Era for the first time in Virginia. Citations are for the Virginia Journal of Science volumes 45, 47, and 48.

1980

Sorghastrum nutans - Stagonospora simplicior (48:38).

1981

Arrhenatherum elatius - Ascochyta brachypodii (47:208).
Bromus ciliata - Puccinia recondita (47:210).
Bromus ciliata - Periconia atra (47:210).
Festuca elatior - Stagonospora nodorum (48:19).
Hystrix patula - Fusarium sambucinum (47:22).
Setaria viridis - Ascochyta sorghi (48:38).
Setoria viridis - Stagonospora nodorum (48:38).
Tridens flavus - Puccinia windsoriae (48:41).

1982

Cynodon dactylon - Polymyxa graminis (47:213).
Agropyron repens - Phyllachora graminis (47:200).
Agropyron repens - Urocystis agropyri (47:200).
Arundinaria gigantea - Ascochyta sorghi (47:209).
Bromus inermis - Rhynchosporium secalis (47:210).
Dactylis glomerata - Rhynchosporium orthosporum (47:215).
Danthonia spicata - Curvularia geniculata (47:217).
Danthonia spicata - Microdochium bolleyi (47:218).
Danthonia spicata - Amerosporium atrum (47:218).
Danthonia spicata - Pseudoseptoria donacis (47:218).
Eragrostis curvula - Ascochyta hordei (48;15).
Eragrostis curvula - Colletotrichum graminicola (48:16).
Festuca elatior - Polymyxa graminis (48:16).
Paspalum floridanum - Curvularia geniculata (48:29).
Phleum pratense - Claviceps purpurea (48:32).
Sorghum halepense - Colletotrichum graminicola (48:39).
Sorghum halepense - Phoma sorghina (48:39).
Spartina alterniflora - Phyllachora spartina (48:40).
Spartina alterniflora - Puccinia sparganioides (48:40).
Spartina pectinata - Puccinia sparganioides (48:40).

1983

Avena sativa - Polymyxa graminis (45:281).
Hordeum vulgare - Polymyxa graminis (45:281).
Secale cereale - Polymyxa graminis (45:281).
Zea mays - Polymyxa graminis (45:281).
Agrostis perennans - Epichloe typhina (47:201).
Agrostis perennans - Puccinia coronata (47:201).
Digitaria sanguinalis - Tetraploa aristata (47:222).
Lolium perenne - Ascochyta desmazieresii (48:24).
Muhlenbergia schreberi - Phomatospora dinemasporium (48:25).
Muhlenbergia schreberi - Phyllachora vulgata (48:25).
Muhlenbergia schreberi - Bipolaris cynodontis (48:25).
Muhlenbergia schreberi - Tetraploa ellisii (48:26).
Panicum dichotomiflorum - Polymyxa graminis (48:27).
Phalaris arundinacea - Polymyxa graminis (48:30).
Phleum pratense - Colletotrichum graminicola (48:32).
Poa annua - Polymyxa graminis (48:33).
Agrostis perennans - Mycosphaerella tulasnei (47:201).
Elymus riparius - Phyllachora graminis (48;12).
Elymus riparius - Colletotrichum graminicola (48:12).
Elymus riparius - Phaeoseptoria urvilleana (48:12).
Phalaris arundinacea - Phyllosticta minutaspora (48:31).
Sorghum halepense - Gloeocercospora sorghi (48:39).

It should be noted that no attempt was made to isolate fungi from the host-fungus associations. The aim was to report the occurrence of the associations from in situ observations.

Some new or unusual diseases or pathogens were described in the Plant Protection Newsletter (PPN).

Wax myrtle, Myrica cerifera, displayed a die-back caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea, a new disease for Virginia (PPN4 (2):2, 1985) reported by Mary A. Hensen.

Alfalfa, Medicago sativa, was killed in areas of a field in Bedford Co. by Rhizoctonia crocorum, 1984-85. The fungus causes violet root rot and had been found once before in Pulaski Co. (PPN 4(2):3, 1985).

Aside from the grass fungi reported by C. W. and M. K. Roane, not much emphasis was placed on reporting new plant diseases in Virginia. This may be due in part to the discontinuance of The Plant Disease Reporter by the U.S.D.A. and it's replacement by Plant Disease by the American Phytopathological Society beginning in January 1980. A fee was attached to short notices published in Plant Disease, whereas such notices were published free by The Plant Disease Reporter. In effect, this greatly reduced, virtually eliminated, the plotting of epidemics and local disease outbreaks in the United States. Cancellation of The Plant Disease Reporter was a great loss to field pathologists.

Service to Professional Societies and Commodity Groups

The most important professional society for plant pathologists is the American Phytopathological Society (APS) and it's Divisions. Memberships were also held in the Society of Nematology, Virginia Agricultural Chemicals Association, American Association of Golf Course Superintendents, National Peach Council, American Peanut Research and Education Association, Virginia State Horticultural Society, Tobacco Workers Conference, Mycological Society of America, Virginia Academy of Science, and others. The following list shows activities closely related to plant pathology.

S. A Alexander.

APS - Forest Pathology Committee, 1979-83, V-C 80-81, Chm. 81-82.
APS - Potomac Div. (APS-PD) - Auditing Comm. 1980-82, V-C 80-81, Chm. 81-82; Program Comm. 81-82.
Southwide Forest Disease Workshop - Steering Comm. 1979-1982, Chairman, 1981-92.

D. E. Babineau

Southern Soybean Disease Workers - Program Comm., 1982; Virginia Agricultural Chemicals Association, Publicity Comm. 1982.

R. E. Baldwin

A.P.S. - P. D. - Resolutions Comm. 1979-80.
A.B.A.M. Baudoin Teaching Comm., 1983

B. I. Chevone

APS - Air Pollution Effects Comm., 1982-86, Chm. 1984-85.

H. B. Couch

APS - Chairman of Comm. for Development of Bylaws and Charter for APS Registry of Professional Plant Pathologists.
American Association of Golf Course Superintendents - Education Comm. 1981-84.

C. R. Drake

APS - Placement Comm. 1982-84; Plant Disease Losses Comm. 1982-84.
National Peach Council - Chairman of Research and Education Comm. 1982-84.

Alma P. Elliott

Society of Nematology - Placement Comm. 1982-84. Vice-Chairperson 1984;
Comm. on Curriculum Development, 1984.

K. H. Garren

American Peanut Research and Education Society - Bailey Award Comm. 1980-82, Golden Peanut Advisory Comm. 1980-82, Local Arrangements Comm., Chm. 1980. Elected Fellow 1982.

G. J. Griffin

APS - Associate Editor, Phytopathology, 1978-80.

G. R. Hooper

APS - Teaching Comm. 1980-85, V. Chm. 1981-82, Chm. 1982-83; Advisory Comm. for Phytopathology News, 1983; Cassette Tape Information Comm., Chm. 1984-85.
APS - PD - Program Comm. 1982; Representative to National Council of Plant Pathology Department Heads, 1981-83, Chm. 1982-83.

D. A. Komm

APS - Comm. for New Fungicide and Nematicide Data, 1984-86.

L. W. Kress

APS - Publications Coordinating Comm., 1983-84; Illustration of Plant Pathogens and Diseases Comm. 1980-84, Chm. 1982-83; Pollution Effects on Plants Comm. 1980-84

G. H. Lacy

APS - Bacteriology Comm. 1978-84, V. Chm. 1981-82, Chm. 1982-83; Comm. for Organizing Diamond Jubilee Meeting, 1982-83; APS - PD - Graduate Student Paper Awards Comm. 1983-84.

R. C. Lambe

APS - Ornamentals and Turfgrass Comm. 1979-81, Chm. 1980-81; Comm. on Registration, 1981-82; Associate Editor, Fungicide and Nematicide Test Results 1979-81.

L. D. Moore

APS - Program Comm. 1982-83; Disease and Pathogen Physiology, 1981-84; Pollution Damage to Plants Comm. 1980-84; Membership Comm. 1983-86; Meeting Site Selection Comm. 1983-86; Nominating Comm. 1983-86. Councilor, PD, 1983-85. APS - PD - Secretary-Treasurer, 1978-81; Vice-President, 1981-82; President, 1982-83; American Institute of Biological Science, Councilor, 1983-86.

P. M. Phipps

APS - Editorial Board, Fungicide and Nematicide Tests, Seed Treatment Section, 1983-84; New Fungicide and Nematicide Data Comm., Chm. 1984; Publications Coordinating Comm. 1983-84; APS - PD - Nominating Comm. 1984.
Virginia Agricultural Chemicals Association - Advisor to Board of Directors 1980-81, -83-84.

D. M. Porter

American Peanut Research and Education Society - Bailey Awards Comm; Chm. 1980; Technical Program Comm. 1980-82, Chm. 1980; Public Relations Comm. 1980-82, Chm. 1982;
Associate Editor, Peanut Science, 1982-84.

J. J. Reilly

Tobacco Workers Conference - Editorial Board, Tobacco Science, 1983-85; Soilborne Disease Comm. Chm. 1983-84; Program Comm. 1983.

C. W. Roane

APS - Genetics Comm. 1982-84; Compendium Comm. 1980-82, V. Chm. 81-82; Monographs and Reviews Comm. 1980-82, Chm. 1981-82; Publications Coordination Comm. 1981-82. APS - PD - Resolutions Comm. 1983; PD Constitution Revision Comm. 1980; Elected Fellow APS, 1984.
Eastern Wheat Workers Conference, Chm. 1978-81; National Wheat Improvement Comm. 1978-81.
North American Barley Research Workers Conference, Co-Chm. 1981-84.

Martha K. Roane

APS - Mycology Comm. 1983-84.
Virginia Academy of Science - Councilor (for Botany Section) 1980-81; Flora Comm. Chm. 1979-81; Local Arrangements Comm. 1982; Publications Comm. 1982-84; Long Range Planning Comm. Chm. 1983-86; Treasurer 1981-82; Secretary 1982-83.

R. J. Stipes

APS - Monographs and Reviews Comm. 1980; APS - PD - V. President, 1983-84, President, 1984-85; Nominating Comm. 1980-81, Resolutions Comm., Chm. 1982; Awards Comm. 1983-84, Chm. 1984.

E. L. Stromberg

APS - Placement Comm. 1981-83, Chm. 1982-83; Regulatory and Foreign Disease Comm. 1982-84, Chm. 1984; APS - PD - Program Comm. 1982-84, Chm. 1984.

Sue A. Tolin

APS - Virology Comm. 1980-81, Chm. 1980; Special Comm. on Status of Women in Plant Pathology, 1980-82; Diamond Jubilee Comm. 1980-82; Public Relations Comm. 1981-84; Special Comm. on Affiliations and Representatives, 1982-84; Fellow, 1984. APS - PD - Program Comm. 1981; Awards Comm. 1980; Nominating Comm. 1982.

W. H. Wills

APS - Associate Editor, Plant Disease, 1982-84. APS - PD - Audit Comm. 1980; Awards Comm. 1981.

K. S. Yoder

APS - Chemical Control Comm. 1980-84, Chm. 1981-82; Fungicide and Nematicide Tests, Editor, Pome Fruits Section, 1981-84; Plant Disease Management Comm. 1980-81;

Miscellanea

In preparing the history of plant pathology during the Hooper Era, I have tried to chronicle the important events. A number of minor events that may seem to be of major importance to individuals have been omitted. Several minor events certainly accumulate into major accomplishments, but these are difficult to identify. Plant pathology at the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Immigration and the Virginia Division of Forestry is not well publicized or documented. There may be federal activities still ongoing, but since the barberry and Ribes eradicating programs were shut down, I am unaware of any other disease related activities.

At this point, a review of departmental and individual accomplishments may be in order. However, most of these were reviewed in the introductory section where Hooper's response to the 1979 Comprehensive Review Panel were listed.

An unusual event involving two individuals occurred during the Hooper Era. Sue A. Tolin and Curtis W. Roane were name American Phytopathology Society (APS) Fellows at the Guelph annual meeting in 1984. It has been a rare occasion for two individuals from the same department to be "fellowed" at the same meeting. Tolin earned this award by her activities on many important national advisory committees related to biotechnology, microbial germplasm collections, service to the Cooperative State Research Service, and service on many APS subject matter and policy committees. She provided APS with premier liaison with other scientific groups. Roane was the first V.P.I. & S.U. alumnus to be fellowed. He earned recognition through his leadership on various cereal commodity groups, genetic studies in barley, the development of disease resistant cereal and soybean cultivars, service and leadership on several APS committees, and editorships for Phytopathology and Plant Disease. Recognition of Tolin and Roane was based on extremes in their approach to plant pathology; Tolin for her contributions to national policy, Roane for his life-long effort to develop better crops and to understand the genetics of their resistance. As cooperators investigating virus diseases, their different modes of operation and funds of knowledge complemented so well that successes and accomplishments were assured. Although this was not mentioned in the Fellow citations for either, it was certainly a factor bringing about their recognition, on the same day.

In 1984, the nonprofit service and education American Chestnut Cooperators Foundation (ACCF) was organized with the purpose of distributing seednuts carrying blight resistance. Recipients were asked to report annually on the performance of seedlings grown from the ACCF nuts so that those with resistance might soon be detected. Gary Griffin and his wife, Lucille, were the principal officers and operators of the ACCF. Gary Griffin served as President, Lucille as the Executive Secretary, and the operation was conducted from their home atop Gap Mountain next to U. S. 460.

When Anton Baudoin arrived in November 1981, he began a survey of diseases of several noxious weeds with the intent of finding natural controls for them. He cited DeVine®, the use of Phytophthora palmivora in Florida to control milkweed vines in citrus groves, and Collego®, Colletrotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomeme for control of jointvetch in rice in Arkansas, as two successful biocontrols of weed pests. Baudoin was considering biocontrol of Canada thistle, cocklebur, hemp dogbane, johnsongrass, kudzu, milkweed, morning glory, multiflora rose, musk thistle, nutsedge, and poison ivy.

Charles Drake, fruit pathologist at Blacksburg in 1984, reported severe damage to peach orchards by the peach leaf curl fungus, Taphrina deformans. He blamed the unusual severity on the rainy period when dormant sprays should have applied, use of spray concentrates which are less effective than dilute sprays, and failure to spray orchards in 1982 and 1983 due to freeze losses.

There may have been outbreaks of other diseases which deserve mention, but I cannot find documentation for their occurrence. As a historian, I lament the discontinuance of The Plant Disease Reporter in which such events could be documented. Sans the PDR much of epiphytology is no longer recorded.

C. W. Roane
June 2001

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