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A History of Plant Pathology in Virginia: The Moore Era (7/1/1984-3/31/1997)

Turfgrasses

During the Moore Era, turfgrass pathology and Houston B. Couch were synonymous. During the Era, Couch mentored three students through their M. S. programs and wrote and published a beautiful book entitled "Diseases of Turfgrasses" (3rd ed., Krieger Publishing Co., Malabar, Fla., 421 pp., 1995.). The book occupied most of his time during the Moore Era. He also conducted research on various aspects of turfgrass pathology. Officially, Couch was assigned 15% teaching and 85% research time in the quarter system and 70% research and 30% teaching time in the semester system.

Couch's teaching program changed in 1985; before then he taught introductory plant pathology (PPWS 3104), a graduate course on principles and concepts in plant pathology (PPWS 6020) and an undergraduate course on the nature and control of turfgrasses (PPWS 4980). After 1985, and especially after the University changed from the quarter to semester system, he taught only PPWS 4980, Diseases of Turfgrasses but the course was not listed in plant pathology; it was variously listed under Agricultural Technology (AT) and Special Study. In the 1992 Comprehensive Review of the Department the following description appeared:

"The lectures cover the total syndromes of the major turfgrass diseases, the epidemiological factors involved in the infection and colonization processes of foliar pathogens and recent developments in the configuration of spray equipment, dilution rates of specific fungicide formulations, and additive, synergistic, and antagonistic interactions among tank mixtures of turfgrass fungicides."

Couch also taught short courses in turfgrass pathology in the University's continuing education program to landscape and turfgrass management specialists and to members of the Golf Course Superintendents Association of America.

Students completing degrees (and their subjects) under Couch's tutorship were:

P. R. Schmidt - Influence of non-oomycete active systemic fungicides on the severity of Pythium blight of bentgrass. M. S., 1984.

B. D. Smith - The influence of high temperature stress and herbicides on susceptibility of creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris) to Curvularia lunata. M. S., 1989.

S. J. McBane - Algae control in bentgrass (Agrostis palustris) with DC5772® and ProfileTM. M. S. Non-thesis, 1997.

Schmidt reported on the interactive effects of fertility levels and non-oomycete active fungicides on Pythium aphanidermatum/Agrostis palustris pathogen/host systems. Some fungicides depressed disease in all environments, but some depressed disease only at low nutrient levels.

Smith addressed the problem of Curvularia lunata as a grass pathogen. It appears from his research that the fungus is best regarded as a pathogen of senenscing tissue. This is in support of the conclusions by Muchovej (1984 Dissertation) that C. lunata is a secondary colonizer.

McBane stepped outside of conventional plant pathology to study control of algae on golf courses. He reported that "management practices which promote a dry soil surface coupled with a preventative fungicide/algicide program are the only means available to combat surface algae as long as environmental conditions favor their development."

In the 1992 Comprehensive Review of the Department (p. 49), Couch reports his research efforts to be focused on various stress factors that affect turfgrass diseases and on developing procedures for maximizing the effectiveness of turfgrass fungicides. Although he held no appointed time in extension, he contributed to the extension program by preparing publications, training extension agents, speaking at extension-sponsored meetings and diagnosing specimens of diseased grasses for the Plant Clinic. He was in demand as a speaker at meetings and conventions of turfgrass managers because of his extensive knowledge and ability as an entertainer. His invited presentations took him to many states and Canadian provinces. Throughout the Moore Era, Couch was ably assisted in his research and extension by Phil Keating.

Air Pollution

The study of the effect of air-borne pollutants on plants began in the Couch Era. Moore, the Department Head, had been associated with the research from the outset. About the time he began his tenure as Department Head, one of his advisees, Oliver Achwanya from Kenya, completed his dissertation in 1984 on, "Effect of ozone, sulfur dioxide and alpha and delta races of Colletotrichum lindemuthisnum (Sacc. & Magn.) Bri. And Cov. on bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L." Moore advised one other student through her Ph.D. program, namely, Amanda Botha of South Africa, who in 1989 wrote on, "The assessment of air pollution impacts on plants in South Africa." Botha reported that atmospheric fluoride and sulfur dioxide were the principle pollutants in South Africa. Damage to flora was particularly noticeable in the vicinity of Cape Town. Acidic mists were a probable cause of injury to pine trees in Eastern Transvaal escarpment regions. Control strategies were not discussed.

Achwanya studied the separate effects of ozone, sulfur dioxide, and the alpha and delta races of C. lindemuthianum, the combined effects of ozone and sulfur dioxide and the interaction among the air pollutants and the fungus. Even though the co-occurrence of ozone and sulfur dioxide had not been documented in Kenya, it was expected to occur as urbanization increased. Anthracnose of bean was a common problem. In his dissertation research, Achwanya found a greater than additive (=synegistic?) effect of the two pollutants acting together and that diseased plants were more susceptible to pollution damage than healthy plants. He suggested that bean breeding for anthracnose resistance done near Thika, a major industrial city in Kenya, may lead to erroneous interpretation of disease reactions. He suggested that the breeding project should be moved to a pollution free area.

Ongoing research in air pollution has been conducted by Boris I. Chevone and Ruth G. Alscher.

Chevone's research addresses the physical and biochemical aspects of air pollution damage to forest trees and tobacco. Alscher's research follows a similar path using pea and red spruce. However, her work entails much more biochemical analysis with an attempt to understand the molecular events involved.

Further discussion of air pollution research becomes plant physiology and molecular biology which are outside the scope of this essay.

Parasitic Angiosperms

In preparing this history of plant pathology in Virginia, nothing was written previously about research on parasitic flowering plants. A complete review takes us back to the Couch Era when A.R. Saghir, Associate professor of Agronomy at the American University of Beirut, Lebanon, was appointed Visiting Associate Professor of Plant Physiology from July 1971 to June 1972. He worked with C. L. Foy on the biology and control of orobanche ramosa, a damaging parasite of tobacco, tomato, potato and hemp (several authors appeared on the publications from early work at V.P.I. & S.U., namely, Foy, Saghir, K. M. Hameed, C.R. Drake, and S. A Tolin. However, the primary collaborators were Foy, Saghir, and Hameed. Weed Res. 13:114-117, 1973; Proc. Eur. Weed Res. Counc. Symp. Parasitic Weeeds, Malta, pp. 106-116, 1973; Weed Sci. 21:253-258, 1973.). Orobanche spp. are very damaging to crops in the Middle East of Asia and Arica. (Jain and Foy. Broomrapes (Orobanche spp.): A potential threat to U.S. broadleaf crops. Weed Tech. 3:608-614, 1989.). K.M. Hameed, who had M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from V.P.I. &.S.U. while stressing gnotobiology, entered a post-doctoral program in January 1972 and was appointed Instructor for the calendar year. He studied the influence of root exulates on seed germination of Orobanche spp. (Weed Res. 13:114-117, 1973.). Saghir, at the end of his tenure, presented a seminar on his work wherein he enlightened the audience with little known facts about the structure, life cycle, and parasitism of Orobanche. Saghir was a very charismatic person, so much so that for his farewell party, Roane was inspired to write an "Ode to Saghirweed."

Ode To Saghirweed

There came to us a man from Beirut
With a message loud and clear:
From an exotic flowering parasite
We have so much to fear !

He studied this pest day and night,
So much that it made him cranky,
He must know all about the parasite
That taxonomists called Orobanche.

He divulged in Seminars and in person
That it grows out of sight of us
Botanists would describe this pesky one
As being radicolous.

He wrings his hands because
It makes tomatoes lean and lanky,
And defies all osmotic laws,
This herb we call Orobanche.

There is much more to dwell upon
But the time is drawing near
For him to return to Lebanon
So it is good bye, friend, Abed Saghir.

C. W. Roane, 1972

Foy continued collaboration with scientists in the Middle East who were actively studying parasitic flowering plants and seeking avenues of control. These included Reuven Jacobsohn and Y. Kleifeld of Israel. Jacobsohn, at V.P.I. & S.U for visits in 1983 and 1985, helped Foy prepare a successful proposal to the Binational Agricultural and Development Fund (an AID function). Funds from this grant sustained cooperative research between Foy and Israelis for several years.

Foy mentored three students through their graduate programs of research on Orobanche:

Rakesh Jain. 1987. Physiological aspects of broomrape (Orobanche spp.) parasitism, host specificity and selective control by glyphosate. Ph.D. Diss. V.P.I. & S.U.

Ivan V. Morozov. 1998. Egyptian broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca Pers.) and small broomrape (Orobanche minor Sm.) parasitism of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) in vitro. M.S. Thesis. V.P.I. & S.U.

Vijay Nandula. 1998. Nitrogen metabolism of broomrapes and selective control by glyphosate. Ph.D. Diss. V.P.I. & S.U.

Jain studied the parasitism of O. aegyptiaca, O. ramosa, and O. crenata on tomato, tobacco, alfalfa, peanut, and soybean. O. aegyptiaca showed the widest host range, and peanut was susceptible to all species. Synthetic analogs of strigol induced high rates of "suicidal germination" of broomrape seeds, ethylene moderately and gibberellic acid less effectively induced germination. Efforts to control broomrape by applying glyphosate to host shoots were partially successful but somewhat damaging to the host. Several publications were issued from Jain's research (Weed Res. 28:383-391, 1988; Weed Tech. 3:608-614, 1989; 6:269-275, 1992; Rev. Weed Sci. 4:123-152, 1989.).

Though the thesis of Morozov and dissertation of Nandula were completed after the Moore Era, most of the research was completed during that era. James H. Westwood took a post-doctoral assignment in April 1994 and was appointed Assistant Professor of Plant Physiology and Weed Science in January 1999. In the Moore Era, he contributed to research that was published after the Moore Era. During Morozov's thesis research, Westwood provided technologies for the project. The objective was to investigate a possible relationship between nodulation and broomrape parasitism of red clover. Morozov found that although "rhizobacterial nodulation is not required for parasitization, the presence of nodules facilitates small broomrape germination and attachment to red clover" (Morozov, Foy, and Westwood. Weed Tech. 14:312-320. 2000.).

In his dissertation research, V. K. Nandula studied the use of glyphosate in controlling broomrape (O. aegyptiaca) in a glyphosate tolerant species, common vetch (Vicia sativa), and a genetically engineered-to-be-glyphosate-resistant species, oilseed rape (Brassica napus). Glyphosate provided excellent suppression of broomrape in both hosts. About 30% of applied labelled glyphosate accumulated in attached broomrape seedlings. Glyphosate generally increased the amino acid concentrations in common vetch and oilseed rape plants, and broomrape attachments (Nandula, Foy, and D. M. Orcutt. Weed Sci. 47:486-491, 1999; Nandula, Joyce G. Foster, and Foy. J. Agri. & Food Chem. 48:3930-3934, 2000; Nandula, Westwood, Foster, and Foy. Ibid. 49:1524-1528, 2001.).

At Old Dominion University in Norfolk Virginia, Lytton J. Musselman has been a student of root-parasitic weeds, world-wide. In 1980, he published a review article entitled, "The biology of Striga, Orobanche, and other root-parasitic weeds" (Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 18:463-489.). Since 1980, I could find his name associated only with conference proceedings and workshops where he served as an editor of resulting publications.

At the University of Virginia, studies have been conducted on in vitro culture of Striga asiatica and on morphogenesis of haustorium formation (Susan Wolfe and M.P. Timko, J. Expt. Biol. 43:1339-1348, 1992; Plant Sci. 73:233-242, 1991; M.P. Timko, Christa S. Florea, and J. L. Riopel, Germination and early morphogenesis of parasitic angiosperms in Advances in the Development and Germination of Seeds, Plenum, 1989; Florea and Timko, Gene 186:127-133, 1997; Wolfe and Timko, Plants 192:61-68, 1994.).

When Striga asiatica (witchweed) was discovered growing in corn fields of four counties each in North Carolina and South Carolina late in 1956, the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Immigration implemented surveys for witchweed in southeastern Virginia. The surveys were conducted from 1957 to the mid-1970's. A total of 2,690 acres were surveyed in the counties of Accomack, Brunswick, Greensville, Henry, Northampton, and Pittsylvania, and the cities of Chesapeake, Suffolk, and Virginia Beach. All surveys were negative for witchweed (Rept. Of Va. Dept. Agri., Imm., Plant Pest Control Section, 1975-1976.). Eradication of witchweed in North and South Carolina was apparently successful and surveys in Virginia ended.

Biological Control

Anton B.A.M. Baudoin was appointed Assistant Professor of Plant Pathology in 1981. Soon thereafter, he began collecting diseased weeds in Virginia and assessing the potential of pathogens associated with them as biological control agents. Pathogens of 16 weeds were examined but most effort was spent on kudzu, milkweed, poison ivy, hemp dogbane, and johnsongrass. He concluded that most of the pathogens had little potential. As he pursued this research, he found several organisms that had not previously been reported as pathogens, namely, Aphelenchoides sp. on milkweed, Phomopsis sp. on hemp dogbane, Phyllosticta sp. on kudzu, and Dichotomophthora indica on purslane (Va. J. Sci. 37:41. 1986.). The work was continued by graduate student D. A. Johnson, mentored by Baudoin, who isolated two Alternaria spp., a Cercospora sp., and two Fusarium spp. from plumeless thistle; a Cercospora sp., a Colletotrichum sp., a Fusarium sp., and a Rhizoctonia sp. from tall morningglory. Johnson and Baudoin intended assaying these fungi for their potential as bio-control agents (Va. J. Sci. 39:95, 1988.).

Musk thistle (Carduus thoermeri) has become a troublesome weed of pastures in western Virginia and was the subject of biological control studies by Entomologist L.T. Kok at V.P.I. & S.U. He had cooperated in the release of two insects that effectively reduced musk thistle populations. Additional enemies of musk thistle were being sought; since the weed was also a problem in western rangelands, workers in the U.S.D.A. at Frederick, Maryland had found Puccinia carduorum, an autoecious rust from the Mediterranean region, to be a potentially useful candidate. The Blacksburg area was selected for its release and evaluation (Biol. Control 3:53-60, 1993.). Baudoin became a cooperator on the project.

In the field, P. carduorum did not spread to other thistle species or artichokes and was deemed after two yeas to be non-hazardous to non-target species. Although little reduction in plant growth was obtained, seed production by musk thistle was reduced. It was feared that the rust would interfere with the effectiveness of herbivore insects on thistle control. Numerous experiments were conducted; no detrimental effects on insects were detected, so it was concluded that both insects and the rust could be used for bio-control of musk thistle (Biol. Control 6:123-129, 1996.).

For his M.S. Thesis, D. A. Johnson evaluated the potential of crabgrass smut as a bio-control agent (D. A. Johnson. 1990. Infection and development of Ustilago syntherismae in Digitaria ciliaris. M. S. Thesis, V.P. I. & S.U.). He found U. syntherismae to be a seedling infecting smut which could initiate infection either from soil-borne or seed-borne inoculum. However, since infection efficiency was relatively low in his experiments, he concluded the fungus was not a good candidate for biological control.

Charles Hagedorn was appointed Professor in 1986 and allotted 50% to Plant Pathology, Physiology, and Weed Science, and 50% to Crops and Soil Environmental Sciences. He was interested in utilizing bacteria to control seedling diseases especially in cotton. Under his direction, Melinda A. Mulesky completed a dissertation entitled, "Rhizosphere competence, antibiotic and siderophore biosynthesis in Pseudomonas chlororaphis : Implications for the biological control of cotton seedling disease pathogens" (1990) in which she demonstrated "a minimum contribution of siderophores in the biological control of cotton seedling disease and established a significant role for antibiotic biosynthesis over a range of soil physical and chemical characteristics." Thus, P. chlororaphis has the potential to protect cotton seedlings from damping-off organisms.

In greenhouse studies with cotton, Hagedorn et al. (1990) demonstrated a similar effect with Pseudomonas fluorescens against Pythium ultimum and Rhizoctonia solani. In soils where these organisms prevailed, certain placements of P. fluorescens reduced seedling disease symptoms and increased plant stands (Hagedorn, N. Nelson, and J. E. Skwara. 1990. Evaluation of a Pseudomonas fluorescens strain for repression of seedling disease in cotton. Va. J. Sci. 41:492-500.).

Nematology

When L. D. Moore became Interim Department Head on July 1, 1984, Alma P. Elliott was the nematologist, but she resigned effective November 30, 1984, to take a position in the California Experiment Station at Riverside. Jonathan D. Eisenback was hired on September 1, 1985 to replace Elliott. That same day Charles S. Johnson was appointed Assistant Plant Pathologist at the Blackstone tobacco station. Eisenback was a very proficient nematologist, well on the way to becoming a world authority on root-knot and cyst nematodes. Johnson, on the other hand, was trained in peanut pathology and control of foliar diseases. He would become an expert in the management of tobacco cyst and root-knot nematodes. Eisenback's contributions will be reviewed below; Johnson's contributions are reviewed in the section on tobacco.

On being appointed to the faculty at V.P.I. & S.U., Eisenback continued the research he had under way at North Carolina State University. Thus, his contributions have centered primarily around expanding our knowledge of Meloidozyne and Globodera spp. He has concentrated on the morphometrics of these important root pathogens and has published his work extensively in the Journal of Nematology and Fundamentals of Applied Nematology. Eisenback was an expert at utilizing the computer for publication and has placed several items on web sites and compact disks. The letter includes "A pictorial glossary of nematological terms" and "Distribution of nematodes (Cactodera, Globodera, Heterodera, and Punctodera spp.) in the United States" in which distributions by states and counties are shown.

Eisenback has sought to improve techniques available to nematode taxonomists such as describing (with A. Rammah) an alternative method of styler extractions (J. Nematol. 19:116-122, 1987.); multiple focus and exposure photomicroscopy for increased depth of field (Ibid. 20:333-334, 1988.); fixation procedures with glutaraldehyde and freeze drying (Ibid. 18:479-487, 1986; Va. J. Sci. 39:97, 1988, with M. M. Mota.). He devised a technique employing a selection of plant species and a key which growers could use to identify the root knot nematode attacking their crops (Pl. Protection Newsl. 6 (2): 20-22, 1987.). With D. A. Radin, he devised an aseptic root culture for studying the interaction of tomato and Meloidogyne incognita root knot. Root growth was induced from thin cell layers of peduncles of susceptible and resistant cultivars. Responses were similar to those on roots from seedlings (J. Nematol. 23:441-445, 1991.).

Eisenback mentored Manuel M. Mota through a Ph.D. project and published several papers and abstracts based upon Mota's research. Mota's dissertation completed in September 1992 was entitled, "Morphological characterization of the tobacco cyst nematode complex, Globodera tabacum sapp. tabacum, virginiae, and solanacearum (Nemata: Heteroderinae). Mota employed both light and scanning electron microscopy; he found the morphology of females and cysts to be most useful for separating the subspecies (J. Nematol. 25:27-33, 136-147, 148-160, 1993.). A dichotomous key using certain characters would be beneficial, but at present the three subspecies are geographically separated so a key was deemed unnecessary.

With Phipps, Johnson and others located at Research and Extension Centers, Eisenback published articles in the American Phytopathological Society annual summaries, Biological and Cultural Tests and Fungicide and Nematicide Tests. Peanut, soybean, and tobacco were the primary subjects; significant results are found in sections on these crops. However, most of this research is incorporated in the annual Pest Management Guide: Field Crops, Virginia Cooperative Extension Service Publication 456-16.

Eisenback presented numerous papers at meetings with nematologists world wide and has written in cooperation with others several book chapters relative to nematode morphology and taxonomy. He has also discovered an/or described domestic and exotic nematodes, especially in the genera Meloidogyne and Globodera.

While Eisenback was developing his career refining descriptions of cyst and root knot nematodes, Miller was ending his career demonstrating that several species of Heterodera (H. glycines, H. cruciferae, and H. schachtii) were interfertile. He produced hybrid populations and studied their morphology (Nematologica 41:322, 1995.). He drew no conclusions as to their taxonomic relations.

Miller studied the inheritance of virulence among five isolates of H. schachtii and found transgressive segregation for virulence and avirulence among the hybrid populations.

Miller presented numerous papers at professional society meetings on morphological comparisons of Globodera spp. pathogenic to tobacco (J. Nematology 23:540, 540-541, 1991; 24:608, 1992; Phytopathology 81:703, 1991; 82:720, 1992; Va. J. Sci. 39:96, 97, 1988; 42:173, 174, 1991; 43:219, 1992.). He also published abstracts on the morphology of three Heterodera spp., namely, H. glycines, H. cruciferae, and H. schachtii J. Nematology 20:648-649, 1988; 21:574, 1989: Nematologica 41:322, 1995; Phytopathology 78:803, 1988; 79:1183, 1989; 84:546, 1994; 85:631, 1995; Va. J. Sci. 39:97, 1988; 40:136, 1989.). He also described a new species of Globodera found in Mexico, Bolivia, and Venezuela (Nematropica 23:127, 1993.). This nematode was not named, but Miller thought it was similar to G. tabacum virginiae.

Miller ventured once into the world of bio-technology. In his final journal publication with V. R. and J. M. Ferris, ribosomal DNA comparisons provided evidence that G. pallida, G. rostochiensis, and two undescribed Mexican isolates were closely related, but G. virginiae was either unrelated or distantly related to the others. These findings were consistent with the thesis that Mexico is the center of origin for the potato cyst nematode (J. Nematology 27:273-283, 1995.).

Although Miller had retired January 1, 1980, he remained a diligent and productive researcher for 16 more years. He died March 8, 1995 from complications following an operation. In the final weeks before he was hospitalized, he was busy planting hosts, washing and screening roots and soil, preserving and studying specimens, and planning papers and trips to meet with nematologists throughout the world.

Virology

Although the topics in this section could very well be considered in sections on soybean, forage crops, tobacco, etc., they are separated and placed under virology because their study involves an almost unique technology. During the Moore Era, Sue A. Tolin mentored six students through graduate degree programs addressing aspects of the soybean mosaic virus (SMV). They were Paul L. Gunyuzlu, 1987; Chang W. Choi, Ph.D., 1991; Indira Srinivasan, M.S., 1992; Tarun Gera, M.S. 1994; Jonathan P. Flora, M.S., 1994; and Saba J. Qusus, Ph.D., 1997. Complete citations of their theses/dissertations are found near the end of the section on soybean.

Gunyuzlu determined the nucleotide sequence of the 3' terminus of strain G1 of SMV. He demonstrated, "That SMV capsid protein is initially expressed as a high molecular weight polyprotein. The predicted amino acid sequence shares several similarities with other potyviruses." He also concluded that, "the amino acid sequence of the N-terminus is highly variable," compared to other potyviruses and that, "SMV may encode a nuclear inclusion gene which shares some homology with other known potyvirus nuclear inclusion genes" (Thesis, p. 38.). This work pioneered a study of potyvirus by cloning a portion of a potyvirus using recombinant DNA. Gunyuzlu also demonstrated heterogeneity in the capsid protein. It was later determined that he had worked with a variant of SMV-G1.

Qusus isolated, cloned, and sequenced the coat protein (CP) genes of SMV-G1 and -G6. "The predicted 265 amino acid sequence of the CP of the G1 and G5 strains were 98.9% identical. Correlating the CP sequences of G1, G2, G6, and G7, with their virulence on resistant soybean cultivars indicated that the CP is not likely to be the R- and /or N-determinant in the SMV-soybean system." (From the Diss. Abstract.).

Qusus also used a technique developed by Gera (see below) to study the pathogenesis of SMV strains G1, G6, and G7 on inoculated leaves of resistant (R), necrotic (N), and susceptible (S) soybean cultivars by leaf imprint immunoassay. She concluded that, "Rsv1-mediated resistance is a multicomponent type of resistance that involved both inhibition of virus replication as well as cell-to-cell movement.

Finally, Qusus attempted to study Rsv1-mediated resistance at the cellular level. Protoplasts of soybean were separated. The attempts failed because the inoculation medium killed the protoplasts, or the residual virus from inoculations interfered. In any case, results were not reproducible.

Gera devised a method of transferring soybean leaf sap and infecting virus to filter paper and, analogous to photography, developing an image of exactly where virus was distributed in the leaf. The advantage of Gera's technique was that the entire leaf was assayed, not merely specified or random sections. He could track movement of the virus any number of days after inoculation. His contribution was development of a very useful, accurate method for pinpointing the location of virus. In his study, he used SMV-G4 and -G5 to inoculate York (Rsv1y) Kwanngyo (Rsv1k) and Lee (rsv).

Choi studied various aspects of the SMV-interactions occurring when 'York' soybean was inoculated with SMV-G1 and necrosis inducing G4. With G4, virus spread in a restricted manner along the veins, stems, and trifoliolate leaves which became necrotic Pathogenesis related proteins accumulated in hypersensitive and necrotic responses; they were placed in four groups two of which were identified, one as beta-1, 3-glucanoses and one as chitinases. These were further subdivided. Accumulation of certain enzymes was correlated with strain specific resistance. These studies gave molecular affirmation to Mendelian genetic studies and occurrence of an allelic series at the Rsv1 locus.

In their various inheritance studies, plant geneticists observed variability of symptoms in soybean-SMV interactions. They attributed this to a sensitivity of resistance genes to high temperature. Flora tested this hypothesis using soybeans cvs. carrying rsv, Rsv1, Rsv1k, Rsv1t and Rsvly, each inoculated singly with SMV-G1, -G4, -G6, and -G7. He also tested similarly cvs. carrying Rsv3, Rsv3h, Rsv3 + Rsv4, and Rsv3?. Symptoms normal for soybean - Rsv1 (all allelotypes) interactions were stable in response to heat treatments, but soybean - Rsv3 interactions varied. Thus, with genetic studies, variations were attributed to other factors in Rsv1 genotypes, but caused variations in hosts of Rsv3 genotype (J. P. Flora, M.S. Thesis, V.P.I. & S.U., 1997.).

Tolin became involved in characterizing two exotic viruses that posed a threat to the U.S. soybean crop should they be introduced. The viruses, soybean dwarf virus (SDV) and a soybean-infecting strain of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV-S), were discovered in Japan and Yugoslavia, respectively. The team investigating SDV operated at Fort Detrick, Md., where containment facilities enabled workers to manipulate the virus without endangering domestic soybean crops. A yellow and dwarfing strain were compared and found to be very similar (Phytopathology 76:759-763, 1986; 81:131-134, 1991.). Neither strain has been found in U.S.A. The TMV-5 was studied by a different team operating at the American Type Culture Collection in Rockville, Md. The team compared TMV-S with TMV-B (bean), TMV-C (common) and TMV-SHMV (sunhemp mosaic virus). They found it most closely related to TMV-C (Indian J. Virol. 2:188-200, 1986; Plant Dis. 79:206-211, 1995.).

Tolin was also a cooperator in the Regional Research Project, Viruses Affecting Growth and Persistence of Forage Legumes in Pastures and Fields. In Virginia, white, alsike, and subterranean clovers were found infected with a soybean dwarf-like luteovirus and also with peanut stunt virus (PSV). Cultures of PSV were provided to collaborators in Kentucky who are attempting to genetically engineer virus-resistant tobacco plants.

Srinivasan in her M.S. research (1992) isolated bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) from red clover (Trifolium pratense) collected in Frederick and Montgomery Counties, clover yellow vein virus (CYVV) from white clover collected in Augusta, Richmond, and Washington Counties, and peanut stunt virus (PSV) from white clover collected in Augusta County. She claimed that these viruses, "were successfully detected for the first time from naturally infected clovers in Virginia...by tissue immunoblot assay" (Srinivasan, M.S. Thesis, p. 74.). The tissue immunoblot assay (TIBA) and indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent (i-ELISA) assay methods for virus detection were compared for efficaciousness, cost, speed, and laboriousness. The TIBA method was equal to or more expeditious than the i-ELISA method on all accounts. This thesis was more a study of laboratory technique than the pathology of forage plant viruses, but it laid the groundwork for more efficient surveys and clinical detection of viruses in forage legumes.

New Plant Diseases and Pathogens

Most of the diseases and pathogens cited below are based upon published reports. In an effort to seek out overlooked publications, several faculty were questioned. The results were surprising; no one kept a list of new or unusual pathogens they encountered. Two diseases/pathogens did attract regional attention, dogwood anthracnose and the corn cyst nematode. Except for graminicolous fungi, the diseases/pathogens are listed in chronological order of publication. Note that the order of publication and order of discovery may not coincide:

Japenese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) - Cercospora blight caused by Cercospora sequoiae, received by the Plant Clinic from Laxena, New Kent Co., 1982. ( R. L. Wick and R. C. Lambe. J. Environ. Hort. 3 (1):18-19. 1985.).

Barley (Hordum vulgare) - the Columbia root-knot nematode Meloidogyne chitwoodi, was detected in soil and barley roots from Westmoreland Co. in December 1985. Previously, it had been known from California, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, Washington. Thus, this is the first record of its occurrence in the eastern United States (J. D. Eisenback, E. L. Stromberg, and M. S. McCoy. Pl. Dis. 70:801. 1986.).

Siberian elm Ulmus pulila) - Dutch elm disease caused by Ophiostoma ulmi (= Ceratocystis ulmi), at Winchester, Frederick Co. 1987. ( R. J. Stipes and K. S. Yoder. Va. J. Sci. 38:131. 1988.).

Round leaf birch (Betula uber) - Crown dieback caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea, and anthracnose caused by Glomerella cungulata found in the Mt. Rogers Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (VACS) propagation plots, Washington Co., 1989. ( R. J. Stipes, D. J. Schweitzer, and M. W. Trammell, Jr., last two VACS, Richmond, Va. J. Sci. 41:69. 1990.).

Soybean (Glycine max) - Root and stem rot, caused by Phytophthora megasperma f. sp. glycines, was first observed on 'Bay' soybean in Amelia Co., August 1988. The fungus was isolated, inoculated to 'Essex' soybean, and the disease was produced. (Hansen, Mary A., R. L. Wick, and E. L. Stromberg. Pl. Dis. 74:183. 1990.).

Shiitake (Japanese forest) mushroom, Lentinus edodes, is grown on logs of deciduous hardwood trees, primarily oak. To say that the mushroom is diseased may not be accurate. However, logs bearing skiitake mushrooms may be invaded by fungi regarded as weeds. These weeds soon destroy the productivity of the logs. Eutypa spinosa and Graphostroma platystoma, both pyrenomycetous Ascomycetes, and both found as invaders of various hardwoods, are among the fungi identified as causing decline of shiitake production in Virginia at various sites. (G. Guevara and R. J. Stipes. Va. J. Sci. 41:62. 1990.).

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) - A ringspot disease caused by the tomato spotted wilt virus was observed on peanut foliage in Dinwiddie, Isle of Wight, and Sussex Cos., in late 1990. Identity of the virus was established by the ELISA method (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay). Isolated infected plants occurred in several fields on several cvs. (D. M. Porter, J. W. Demski, and P. M. Phipps. Pl. Dis. 75:451. 1991.).

Corn (Zea mays) - Crazy top caused by Sclerophthora macrospora (formerly Sclerospora macrospora) occurred in test plots on the farm of Bailey and Leedy at Crockett, Wythe Co. 1991, 1992. The disease was reported by E. L. Stromberg (unpublished) and observed by C. W. Roane. Although crazy top was observed in 1958, there are no reports of its occurrence in Virginia in the intervening years, 1958 - 1991.

Peanut leafspot fungus hyperparasite (Cercosporidium personatum) - Dicyma pulvinata was observed colonizing the causal agent of peanut leafspot during October 1991, in Suffolk. A frequency of 2.5% was determined on 8110 spots. Through 1991, this was the northernmost observation of the fungus. (D. M. Porter and R. A. Taber. Pl. Dis. 76:1185. 1992.).

Corn (Z. mays) - the cyst nematode, Heterodera zeae was first found in Virginia in October 1992 on a farm in Cumberland Co. The infested field produced 120 bu/ac in 1991 following application of a nematicide, but only 20 bu/ac without a nematicide in 1992. There were no additional sites of infestation in Virginia through the end of the Moore Era. (J. D. Eisenback, Diane Reaver, and E. L. Stromberg. Pl. Dis. 77:647. 1993.).

Corn - Eyespot caused by Aureobasidium zeae (syn. Kabatiella zeae) was found in Montgomery and Orange Cos. In the fall of 1984. ( C. W. Roane and Martha K. Roane. Va. J. Sci. 45:279-296, p. 292. 1994.).

Grape (Vitis vinifera) - Grapevine yellows caused by a mycoplasma-like organism, MLO, was observed in 1987. By 1993, it had been recorded for 12 Chardonnay and 3 Riesling vineyards scattered around the Piedmont. The disease appears to be similar to grapevine flavescence dor_ee of Europe. ( T. K. Wolf, Winchester Experiment Station, J. P. Prince, and R. E. Davis, USDA, Beltsville, Md., Pl. Dis. 78:208. 1994.).

For several years after his retirement on August 31, 1986, C. W. Roane collected fungi on grasses. This was a somewhat natural follow-up to his 39+ years of research on cereal crop diseases. His wife, Martha K. Roane, joined in the identification, description, and publication of the findings. Three papers were issued under the general title, "Graminicolous fungi of Virginia" (Va. J. Sci. 45:279-296, 1994; 47:197-224, 1996; 48:11-45, 1997.). It was concluded that there were 160 fungus/grass associations new to the United States, 24 new to the eastern United States (east of the Mississippi R.), and 46 new only for Virginia. Thus, 230 new associations were reported for Virginia. Since most of the collections were made in Montgomery and the surrounding counties, a few from the Piedmont, and a very few from the Coastal Plain, the authors suggested that intensive surveys in single counties, cities, ecosystems, or neighborhoods should be very productive (Va. J. Sci. 48:44.). Martha Roane died on December 31, 1996, but Curtis Roane continued the project on a limited scale and intends to report further on this work.

When a previously exotic organism is introduced for the purpose of biocontrol of a noxious weed, should it properly be considered under new diseases? Musk thistle, Carduus thoermeri, is an introduced weed that has become a widespread pasture and range pest in the United States. Heavy infestations occur in several counties in western Virginia. Attempts have been made to control it by introducing insects that feed upon it. Although these insects have reduced the population, a search has been made for pathogenic fungi which may further reduce the thistle population. Puccinia carduorum, an autoecious rust from turkey, was found by researchers at the Foreign Disease-Weed Science Research Unit, USDA-ARS, Fort Detrick, Md. to be a probable biocontrol agent for musk thistle ( W. L. Bruckart et. Al. 1996. Biol. Control 6:215-221.). Anton Baudoin cooperated with Bruckart in the October 1987 release of P. carduorum, and in the study of its spread through 1995 (A.B.A.M. Baudoin et al. Biol. Control 3:53-60, 1993; Pl. Dis. 80:1193-1196, 1996.). From its introduction near Blacksburg in1987, by 1995 it had spread westward into Kentucky, Indiana, Tennessee, and Missouri, and southward into North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. Baudoin and Bruckhart made the following cautious statement, "The fact that rust severities on young rosettes in the fall were usually low may favor the pathogen since it limits damage to the host, but it is disappointing from a biological control perspective since young seedlings are actually the most susceptible stage, and severe fall infection might have led to the reduced overwintering of thistles ( Pl. Dis. 80:1196.). It is often said that nature has a way of achieving a balance. Experimenters in biological control can vouch for the veracity of this axiom.

Plant Pathology Related Service to Societies, 1984 - 97

Obviously, the American Phytopathological Society was the most important society for plant pathologists, but there were others just as important to individuals, namely, The Society of Nematology, Virginia State Horticultural Society, Virginia Academy of Science, Organization of Tropical American Nematologists, American Institute of Biological Sciences, American Peanut Research and Education Society, International Society of Arboculture. Activities in the various societies are listed below.

S. A. Alexander

American Phytopathological Society

Forest Pathology Committee - 1986 - 1990.

Plant Disease Detection Comm. - 1990 - 1992.

National Forest Health Monitoring Management Comm. - 1992 - 1995.

Potomac Division Graduate Student Comm. - 1997 - 1998.

A. B. A. M. Baudoin

American Phytopathological Society

Editorial board, Plant Disease - 1989- 1991.

Teaching Comm. - 1983 - 1988.

Chairman, 1986 - 1987.

Local Arrangements Comm. - 1989.

Editor, Laboratory Exercises for Plant Pathology, APS, 1988.

Potomac Division Graduate Student Paper

Judging Comm. 1985, 1988, 1994,

Secretary/Treasurer, Potomac Division - 1997 - 99.

Virginia Academy of Science

Agricultural Science Section, Chm. - 1991

Jodi A. Carlson (Gray)

American Phytopathological Society

Forest Pathology Comm. 1992 - 1995.

Potomac Division Representative to the Graduate Comm. - 1991 - 1993.

J. D. Eisenback

American Phytopathological Society

Illustrations of Plant Pathogens Comm. - 1987 - 1998.

International Liaison Comm. - 1988 - 1998.

Society of Nematologists

Secretary - 1994 - 1997.

Executive Board - 1994 - 97.

Computers in Nematology Comm. - 1991 - 1998.

Intraspecific Designations in Nematology Comm. - 1988 - 1989.

Education Comm. - 1980 - 1989; 1994 - V.-Chm. 1981 - 84, 1986 - 7.

Chm. 1984 - 85, 1985 - 86, 1987 - 89.

Program Comm. For 1988 meeting - 1986 - 88.

Systematic Resources Comm. - 1996 - 97.

Symposium Chm. - 1988, 1990.

Paper Session Chm. - 1984, 1986, 1987.

Associate Editor, Journal of Nematology. - 1988 - 90.

Organization of Tropical American Nematologists

Geographical Representative for North America - 1990 - 1998.

Virginia Academy of Science

Judge for Virginia Junior Academy of Science - 1991.

Editorial Board. Nematologica Mediterranea - 1989 - 97, 1994 - 96.

Editorial Board, Numa CD International. - 1996 - 97.

R. L. Grayson

American Phytopathological Society

Public Relations Comm. - 1992 - 96.

G. J. Griffin

American Phytopathological Society

Soil Microbiology and Root Disease Comm. - 1988 - 90, 1995 - 98.

C. Hagedorn

American Phytopathological Society

Biotechnology Regulation

Impact Assessment Comm. - 1991, 1994 - 96.

Mary A. Hansen

American Phytopathological Society

Plant Disease Advisory Board - 1993 - 94.

Diagnostics Comm. - 1988 - 90.

Subcomm. On Diagnostics Manual - 1988 - 95.

Placement Comm. - 1988 - 91.

Editor, "Spotlight on Diagnosis" Section of Plant Disease. - 1992 - 93.

Editorial Board, APS Press. - 1994.

G. R. Hooper

American Phytopathological Society

Teaching Comm. - 1980 - 85.

Cassette Tape Information Comm. - 1984 - 85.

C. S. Johnson

American Phytopathological Society

Comm. on Plant Disease Losses. - 1988 - 91.

Integrated Pest Management Comm. - 1989 - 93, V.-chm. 1990 - 91,

Chm. 1991 - 93.

Nematology Comm. - 1997 - 98.

Extension Comm. - 19933 - 96.

Dean A. Komm

American Phytopathological Society

Extension Comm. - 1984 - 85.

G. H. Lacy

American Phytopathological Society

Bacteriology Comm. - 1997 - 98.

Potomac Division Graduate Student Paper Awards Comm. - 1990.

R. C. Lambe

American Phytopathological Society

Registration Comm. - 1985.

International Cooperation Comm. - 1986 - 88.

Private Practice Comm. - 1986 - 88.

L. D. Moore

American Phytopathological Society

Potomac Division Representative on Council. - 1983 - 86.

Local Arrangements Chm., National Meeting for 1989. - 1986 - 89.

APS Representation on American Institute of Biological Sciences. - 1983 - 96.

Editor, Phytopathology News. - 1987 - 90.

Membership Comm. - 1983 - 86.

Meeting Site Selection Comm. - 1983 - 86.

Nominating Comm. - 1983 - 86.

Public Responsibilities Comm. - 1992 - 96. V.- Chm. 1993 - 94, Chm. 1994 - 95.

Cultural Diversity Comm. - 1994 - 97. Chm. 1996 - 97.

Women in Plant Pathology Comm. - 1995 - 98.

Potomac Division Committees

Nominations. - 1990 - 91.

Distinguish Service Award. - 1993 - 94.

Graduate Student Competition. - 1992, 1995.

American Institute of Biological Sciences.

General Council. - 1983 - 92.

Board of Directors. - 1986 - 88, 1989 - 91.

P. M. Phipps

American Phytopathological Society

Chemical Control Comm. - 1994 - 97.

Associate Editor, Plant Disease - 1986 - 88, 1992 - 94, 1995 - 97.

Section Editor, Biological and Cultural Control Tests. - 1988 - 90.

Section Editor, Fungicide and Nematicide Tests. - 1982 - 87.

Comm. to Draft the Extension - Technology Transfer Section of Plant Pathology 2000 Document. - 1993 - 94.

American Peanut Research and Education Society

Finance Comm. - 1997 - 99.

Fellows Comm. - 1994 - 97, chm. 1996

Local Arrangements Comm. - 1995, 1998.

Technical Program Comm. - 1986, 1989, 1991, 1992.

Graduate Student Paper Competition, Judge. - 1993 - 94.

Associate Editor, Peanut Science. - 1993 - 99.

Other - Southern Soybean Disease Workers, Disease Loss Estimate Comm. - 1984 - 97.

- Cotton Seedling Disease Control Comm. - 1995 - 97.

- Cotton Nematode Control Comm. - 1995 - 97.

D. M. Porter

American Phytopathological Society

Co-editor, Compendium of Peanut Diseases. - 1984, Sec. ed. 1997.

American Peanut Research and Education society.

Program Comm., Chm. - 1986.

Nominating Comm., Chm. - 1988.

Awards Comm. - 1988 - 89.

Fellows Comm. - 1991 - 92, Chm. 1992.

President. - 1986.

Associate Editor, Peanut Science, - 1982 - 84.

C. W. Roane

American Phytopathological Society

Archives Comm. - 1991 - 93.

Martha K. Roane

American Phytopathological Society

Mycology Comm.

Potomac Division, Resolutions Comm. - 1986, Chm.

Potomac Division, Graduate Student Awards Comm. - 19817, Chm.

Co-editor, Compendium of Rhododendron and Azalea Diseases. - 1986.

Co-author, APS Monograph Chestnut Blight, Other Endothia Diseases, and the Genus Endothia. - 1986.

Co-preparer, APS slide set and text, Diseases of Rhododendron and Azalea. - 1989.

Virginia Academy of Science

Flora Comm. Council

Editor, Jeffersonia

Local Arrangements Comm.

Chairman, Public Relations

Chairman, Accommodations

Publications Comm.

Long Range Planning Comm.

Archives Comm., Chm.

Advisory Board of Virginia Museum of Natural History. - 1985 - 87.

Treasurer.

Secretary.

R. J. Stipes

American Phytopathological Society

Monographs and Reviews Comm. -

Membership Survey Comm. -

Promotional Film Comm. -

Associate Editor, Phytopathology. 1989 - 91.

Potomac Division, - President - 1984

- Councilor - 1986 - 88

- Awards Comm.

- Nominations Comm.

- Resolutions Comm.

- Pianist, annual banquet.

International Society of Arborculture

Editorial Board, Journal of Arborculture. - 1988 - 90.

Virginia Academy of Science

Agricultural Sciences Section, Editor, Councilor. -

Botany Section, Editor, Councilor

E. L . Stromberg

American Phytopathological Society

Fungicide and Nematicide Data Comm. - 1986 - 92, V.-Chm. - 1987 - 88, Chm. - 1988 - 89, 1995 - 97.

Section Editor, Fungicide and Nematicide Tests, - 1990 - 91, 1992 - 96.

Editor, Fungicide and Nematicide Tests, - 1992 - 97.

Extension Comm. - 1988 - 92.

Regulatory and Foreign Plant Diseases Comm. - 1980 - 86, Chm. - 1984 - 86.

Integrated Pest Management Comm. - 1995

Potomac Division

Program Comm. - 1982 - 92, Chm. 1991; 1994

V.-President. - 1989 - 90, President. - 1990 - 91.

Nominations Comm., Chm. - 1991

Distinguished Service Awards Comm., Chm. - 1991.

Program Comm. - 1996

Sue A. Tolin

American Phytopathological Society

Vice-president, President Elect, President, Past President. - 1993 - 96.

Councilor-at-Large. - 1989 - 93.

Financial Advisory Comm. - 1993 - 96.

Headquarters Operations Comm. - 1993 - 96.

National Meeting Program, Comm. 1992 - 94; Chm. - 1994.

National Plant Pathology Board, - 1991 - 97.

APS Representative to Coalition for Funding Agricultural Research Missions. - 1993 - 97.

Biotechnology Regulation Impact Assessment Comm. - 1987 - 92; 1997 -

Public Responsibilities Comm. - 1984 - 88.

Committee on Committees, Chm. - 1991.

Executive Comm. - 1991.

Membership Comm. - 1991.

Potomac Division Nominating Comm. - 1993 - 94.

H. L. Warren

American Phytopathological Society

Genetics Comm. - 1986 - 89.

Collection and Germplasm Comm. - 1991 - 94.

Diversity and Cultural Comm. - 1995 - 98. V.-Chm. - 1997.

K. S. Yoder

American Phytopathological Society

New Fungicide and Nematicide Data Comm. - 1989 - 92.

Section Editor, Small Fruits, Ibid. 1996 - 97.

Potomac Division. Program Comm. - 1986.

Deciduous Tree Fruit Workers, Pre-meeting tour, Chm. - 1989.

Associate Editor, Phytopathology - 1993 - 95.

Chemical Control Comm. - 1989 - 91.



Faculty Awards and Recognitions Related to Plant Pathology, 1984 - 1997

The awards and citations listed below originated outside of the Department and show that the recipients are recognized for quality achievements by professional societies, scholarly organizations, and the agricultural industry.

S. A. Alexander.

U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Scientific Leadership Award, 1995.

Office of Monitoring, Tribute of Appreciation, 1995.

R. E. Baldwin.

Association of Virginia Potato and Vegetable Growers, Certificate of Appreciation for Outstanding and Dedicated Service, 1994.

A.B.A. M. Baudoin.

National Association of College Teachers in Agriculture, NACTA Teacher Fellow Award, 1987.

American Phytopathological Society, Excellence in Teaching Award, 1994.

B. I. Chevone.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Certificate of Outstanding Service, Office of Exploratory Research, 1993.

H. B. Couch.

Massachusetts Turfgrass Conference, 63rd meeting dedicated to Couch, 1994.

C. R. Drake.

National Peach Council, Carroll Miller Award, for Outstanding Research and Extension Contributions to the Peach Industry, 1988.

J. D. Eisenback.

Society of Nematology Ciba.Geigy Award, for Significant Contributions to Agriculture, 1996.

G. J. Griffin.

Academia Galega De. Sciences, Spain, Elected to Membership, 1992.

U.S. Department of Agriculture / CSREES, Group Honor Award, for Innovative Research on American Chestnut, 1997.

C. Hagedorn.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Distinguished Service Award, 1992.

R. C. Lambe.

Fulbright Scholarship, 1983 - 84.

L. D. Moore.

American Phytopathological Society. Potomac Division, Distinguished Service Award, 1994.

Virginia Turfgrass Council, Meritorious Service Award, 1994.

Virginia Pesticide Control Board, Certificate of Recognition, 1996.

P. M. Phipps.

American Phytopathological Society, Extension Award, 1994.

Virginia Tech Alumni Association, Excellence in Extension Award, 1994.

American Peanut Research and Education Association, Bailey Award for Outstanding Paper, 1991.

D. M. Porter.

American Peanut Research and Education Association, Fellow. 1989

C. W. Roane.

Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station, 'Roane' wheat named for contributions to small grains breeding, 1998.

American Phytopathological Society, Fellow, 1984.

Ibid., Potomac Division, Distinguished Service Award, 1990.

Gamma Sigma Delta, Va. Tech Chapter, Outstanding Faculty Research Award, 1986.

Va. Tech Agricultural Alumni Organization Citation, for Outstanding Service to Va. Tech, Agricultural Alumni Association, the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences and the Industry of Agriculture, 1989.

Virginia Small Grains Association, Certificate of Appreciation, 1986.

M. K. Roane.

Virginia Academy of Science, Fellow, 1991.

R. J. Stipes.

American Phytopathological Society, Potomac Division, Distinguished Service Award, 1995.

Alpha Gamma Rho, Va. Tech Chapter, Commendation Certificate, 25 Years Service to Virginia Agriculture, 1993.

International Society of Arboriculture, Outstanding Research Award, 1991. Honorary Life Membership (Mid-Atlantic Division), 1990.

E. L. Stromberg.

American Society of Agronomy, Certificate of Excellence, for Development of Outstanding Educational Material, i.e., "Intensive Soft Red Winter Wheat Production-Management Guide," 1996.

National Association of Wheat Growers, Certificate of Appreciation, 1989.

Virginia Small Grains Association, Certificate of Appreciation for Contributions to Wheat Disease Control, 1996.

S. A. Tolin.

American Phytopathological Society, Fellow, 1984.

Presidential Service Award, 1996.

Potomac Division, Distinguished Service Award, 1996.

U.S.D.A., Certificate of Appreciation for Service to Science, 1993.

Purdue University, Distinguished Alumni Award, College of Agriculture, 1993.

University of Nebraska, Outstanding Alumni Award, 1995.

H. L. Warren.

Commonwealth Visiting Professor, 1988.

New York Academy of Science, Elected Member, 1996.

M. J. Weaver.

Agricultural Communicators in Education, Superior Award, for Educational Interactive Video Program, 1989.

Ibid., Superior Award, Best Innovative Use of Communication Technology, 1989.

Student Awards and Recognitions Related to Plant Pathology, 1984- 1997.

Cunningham Fellowships

Caitilyn Allen - 1983, 1985 - 86.

American Phytopathology Society, Potomac Division, Best Paper Award

Michele Carter - 1992, Co-winner

Ramon Cu - 1990.

John Eberwine - 1993.

David Langston - 1996.

Katherine J. Lewis - 1985, Co-winner.

Daniel P. Roberts - 1985, Co-winner.

F. D. "Tad" Smith - 1991.

Sandra Walker - 1992, Co-winner.

Bruce Perry Scholarship

Caitilyn Allen - 1986.

Brooks Crozier - 1991.

Graciela Farias -1990, 1991.

Jonathan Flora - 1996.

David Johnson - 1987, 1989.

Melinda Mulesky - 1989.

Symon Mwangi - 1992, 1993, 1994.

Santford V. Overton - 1984.

Nancy Robbins - 1997.

Virginia Agricultural Chemical and Soil Fertility Association Scholarship

Timothy B. Brenneman - 1985.

Michele Carter - 1991.

Brooks Crozier - 1996.

Anne Dorrance - 1992.

John Eberwine - 1992, 1993.

David Langston - 1997.

F. D. "Tad" Smith - 1989.

American Peanut Research and Education Society, best paper award.

Timothy B. Brenneman - 1985.

Ramon Cu - 1989, 1990.

David Langston - 1996.

Miscellaneous Awards and Scholarships

Anne Dorrance.

Teaching Excellence Award from our College - 1995;

Graduate Student Scholarship; Graduate Research Development Project Grant - 1994.

Elspeth Jewell.

Kocide Chemical Corp., Agricultural Scholarship 1984, 1985.

Mike Johnson.

Virginia State golf Association Fellowship - 1994.

Manuel Mota.

Junta Nacional de. Investigaco Cientificae Technologica Scholarship - 1990.

Melinda Muleskey.

American Association of University Women Scholarship - 1993.

Sigma Xi Grant-in-aid Research Award - 1993.

Symon Mwangi.

Rockefeller Foundation Research Grant - 1995.

Sirkka Kyostio.

Research Grant, Graduate Student Assembly - 1990.

Sigma Xi Graduate Research Award - 1989.

Diane Reaver.

David R. Spence Research Award from our College - 1986.

Paul Zama.

Graduate Research Development Award - 1985.


Epilogue

This History of Plant Pathology in Virginia was originally undertaken as a hobby. At the time of my retirement, August 31, 1986, I could not visualize myself as disconnecting from plant pathology. Since I was interested in the history of plant pathology and had known all of Virginia's pathologists from 1930 on, writing about plant pathology in Virginia seemed like a way to stay connected. It has kept me connected for over 15 years.

This History is totally my own. No one else has specified its length or content. I have not relied on editors nor have I had to contend with them. Thus, all errors, misconceptions, and omissions are mine alone. Conversely, there may be some first-time observations and proclamations for which I may be proud. To those who may have contributed substantially to Virginia plant pathology and whose contributions were not cited, I deeply regret the omission and apologize sincerely.

As to the style of the History, I recognize inconsistencies in citations and format. I did whatever the mood of the moment dictated, and there were many moods over the 15+ years. The History is not meant to be a literary piece, but more a chronicle, a tabulation in prose. It does not deal with personalities, people, or clashes. Having done so, the history might have been hilarious or at times, reeking of scandal. A more talented author in doing so may have created a more interesting, readable history. It may have also been necessary to seal the history and label it, "Do not open until 2050." Thus, the History is only archival 'stuff' destined to fill a few more inches on library shelves, shelves already overstuffed with print nobody ever reads; for now it must be on a web site or the internet, or it will never be seen.

C. W. Roane
April 2003

Acknowledgements

It would seem that one could assemble a history of plant pathology simply by consulting published papers, books, reports, etc. Try it. You will find that you become dependent upon the kindness of others for all sorts of favors. Thus, many of my plant pathology colleagues provided me with notes, reprints, and conversational tidbits which enhanced the completeness of this history. Although the list is probably incomplete, I would like to thank my wife, Martha K. Roane (deceased), and my friend Lawrence S. Miller (deceased), who played significant roles in editing and steering me to sources of information. Others provided dossiers, documents, and biographical files: R. E. Baldwin, A.B.A.M. Baudoin, H. B. Couch, C. R. Drake, J. D. Eisenback, C. L. Foy, K. H. Garren, G. J. Griffin, L. D. Moore, R. S. Mullin, T. J. Nugent, J. A. Pinckard, D. M. Porter, Peter B. Schultz, J. M. Skelly, R. J. Stipes, E. L. Stromberg, Sue A. Tolin, and K. S. Yoder.

Those who contributed secretarial services include Judy Fielder, Arleta Boyd, and Deborah Allen. Department heads who supported the history by providing secretarial help, stationery, and copying, support, and especially the encouragement to continue to my selected finishing date, 1997, and to whom I am very grateful are L. D. Moore, K. G. Hatzios, and Craig L. Nessler.

I remain eternally grateful to all those mentioned and to those who through human oversight were not mentioned, but also contributed.

C. W. Roane
April 2003

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